RulesBeta

RulesBeta

Introduction
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Introduction
Introduction Paragraph
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Introduction Paragraph

Ultimate is a seven-a-side team sport played with a flying disc. It is played on a rectangular field, about half the width of a football field, with an end zone at each end. The objective of each team is to score a goal by having a player catch a pass in the end zone that they are attacking. A thrower may not run with the disc, but may pass the disc in any direction to any team-mate. Any time a pass is incomplete, a turnover occurs, and the other team shall take possession and attempt to score in the opposite end zone. Games are typically played to 15 goals or around 100 minutes. Ultimate is self-officiated and non-contact. The Spirit of the Game guides how players officiate the game and conduct themselves on the field.Many of these rules are general in nature and cover most situations, however some rules cover specific situations and override the general case.Variations to the basic structure and rules may be used to accommodate special competitions, number of players, age of players or available space. Refer to the relevant Appendix for additional rules that apply at specific types of World Flying Disc Federation (WFDF) Events.

1. Spirit of the Game
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1. Spirit of the Game
1.1
1
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1.1

Ultimate is a non-contact, self-officiated sport. All players are responsible for administering and adhering to the rules. Ultimate relies upon a Spirit of the Game that places the responsibility for fair play on every player.

1.2.
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1.2.

It is trusted that no player will intentionally break the rules; thus there are no harsh penalties for inadvertent breaches, but rather a method for resuming play in a manner which simulates what would most likely have occurred had there been no breach.

1.2.1.
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1.2.1.

If there is a deliberate or egregious breach of the rules or Spirit of the Game, the captains should discuss this and determine an appropriate outcome, even if that outcome is not in accordance with a specific rule.

Note:For a breach to be considered egregious it should be considered a type of breach that you would not normally except within a standard game of Ultimate, or one for which there is no reasonable justification within the rules.Example:A defender commits an egregious dangerous play that results in a foul against a receiver who was attempting to gain possession of the disc in their attacking endzone. Result:Captains may choose to allow the receiver to claim a goal, instead of the receiver gaining possession and moving to the goal line.Example:A thrower deliberately travels to enable them to move past the marker and gain yardage upwind on a turnover.Result:Captains may choose to treat the turnover location as the spot where the disc was thrown.Example:A defender intentionally double teams the thrower, with no regard for any other offensive players, and gets a block.Result:Captains may choose to return the disc to the thrower.

1.3.
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1.3.

Players should be mindful of the fact that they are acting as referees in any arbitration between teams. Players must:

1.3.1.
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1.3.1.

know the rules;

1.3.2.
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1.3.2.

be fair-minded and objective;

1.3.3.
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1.3.3.

be truthful;

1.3.4.
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1.3.4.

explain their viewpoint clearly and briefly;

What:It is an essential component of good spirit that a player must be prepared, if asked, to explain concisely the objective evidence that led to making a call, or contesting a call.Example:After making a travel call, if asked, the defender might explain “I saw you lift your pivot foot while the disc was still in your hand.”Why:The objective evidence is evidence that can be tested for validity. It makes it clear that the call was not based on emotion or what the player wanted or expected to happen, but what they actually observed.If a player is not reasonably certain of the objective evidence, they should not make a call.Extra:Players should be aware and understanding of the language limitations accompanying international play, however opponents should still be able to communicate, even through gestures, what they saw. Team captains and team mates should get involved if they think their team’s player is wrong or does not behave correctly.

1.3.5.
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1.3.5.

allow opponents a reasonable chance to speak;

1.3.6.
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1.3.6.

consider their opponent’s viewpoint;

1.3.7.
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1.3.7.

use respectful words and body language with consideration of potential cultural differences;

1.3.8.
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1.3.8.

resolve disputes as quickly as possible, using respectful language;

1.3.9.
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1.3.9.

make calls in a consistent manner throughout the game; and

1.3.10.
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1.3.10.

only make a call where a breach is significant enough to make a difference to the outcome of the action.

What:Players should allow for a reasonable degree of tolerance for minor breaches involving small discrepancies in distance and time.Example:If the thrower established a pivot one centimetre away from the correct pivot location then a travel infraction should not be called.

1.4.
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1.4.

Highly competitive play is encouraged, but should never sacrifice the mutual respect between players, adherence to the agreed-upon rules of the game, player safety or the basic joy of play.

1.5.
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1.5.

The following actions are examples of good Spirit:

1.5.1.
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1.5.1.

retracting a call when you no longer believe the call was correct;

1.5.2.
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1.5.2.

checking in with an opponent on the sideline after a contentious interaction;

1.5.3.
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1.5.3.

complimenting an opponent for good play or Spirit;

1.5.4.
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1.5.4.

introducing yourself to your opponent; and

1.5.5.
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1.5.5.

reacting calmly towards disagreement or provocation.

1.6.
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1.6.

The following actions are clear violations of the Spirit of the Game and must be avoided:

1.6.1.
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1.6.1.

dangerous play and aggressive behaviour;

1.6.2.
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1.6.2.

intentional fouling or other intentional rule breaches;

1.6.3.
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1.6.3.

taunting or intimidating opposing players;

What:A player could be deemed to be engaging in intimidating behaviour if, for example, they yell loudly at an opponent with the intention of distracting the opponent as they are about to make a catch. Simply undertaking a normal action within the game, such as making a bid in front of someone, should not be seen as intimidation.

1.6.4.
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1.6.4.

celebrating disrespectfully after scoring;

What:This includes spiking directed at an opponent and taunting of the opponent by “showing” them the disc. These actions must be avoided.Result:Opposing team captains and spirit captains should discuss all matters relating to violations of spirit and try to resolve them.

1.6.5.
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1.6.5.

making calls in retaliation to an opponent’s call;

1.6.6.
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1.6.6.

calling for a pass from an opposition player; and

1.6.7.
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1.6.7.

other win-at-all-costs behaviour.

1.7.
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1.7.

Teams are guardians of the Spirit of the Game, and must:

1.7.1.
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1.7.1.

take responsibility for teaching their players the rules and good Spirit;

1.7.2.
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1.7.2.

discipline team-mates who display poor Spirit;

1.7.3.
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1.7.3.

provide constructive feedback to other teams about what they are doing well and/or how to improve their adherence to the Spirit of the Game; and

1.7.4.
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1.7.4.

call a Spirit Stoppage to address Spirit issues, as appropriate.

1.8.
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1.8.

In the case where a novice player is involved in a breach and does not know the rules, experienced players should assist to explain the breach.

1.9.
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1.9.

An experienced player, who offers advice on rules and guides on-field arbitration, may supervise games involving beginners or younger players.

1.10.
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1.10.

Calls should be discussed by the players directly involved in the play, and by players who had the best perspective on the play.

1.10.1.
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1.10.1.

If a player who was not directly involved believes that a team-mate has made an incorrect call, or caused a foul or violation, they should inform their team-mate.

1.10.2
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1.10.2

Non-players, apart from the captains, should refrain from getting involved. However players may seek other peoples' perspectives to clarify the rules, and to assist players to make the appropriate call.

It is still up to the players involved to make the final call. Non players must not provide advice regarding a call unless they are requested to by a player involved.If play has stopped, and a player is unable to make a call, for example due to injury or language barriers, then a teammate may make a call on their behalf.Teams may use a non-player as a translator to assist in communication during a stoppage. Players may view photographic or video footage of a call if it is available. However play may not be unreasonably delayed for this purpose. See the Appendix for more detail.For example, live instant replay in a stadium setting may be used by players to resolve a contested foul call. Players may not, however, request that a particular play be replayed on the screen. If, after reviewing the video, players still cannot agree, they should not delay the game to rewatch the play multiple times; instead, the play should be treated as a regular contested foul.

1.11.
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1.11.

Players and captains are solely responsible for making and resolving all calls.

A captain should not make a call that stops play if they were not directly involved in the play. However a captain can be involved in resolving any call once play has already stopped.

1.12.
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1.12.

If, after discussion, players cannot agree, or it is not clear and obvious:

1.12.1.
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1.12.1.

what occurred in a play, or

1.12.2.
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1.12.2.

what would most likely have occurred in a play, the disc must be returned to the last non-disputed thrower.

Before the disc is returned to the thrower when players cannot agree, players should discuss what happened in the play. Both players involved should attempt to clearly explain what they think happened and listen to the view of their opponent, or other players with good perspective on the play.If discussion is difficult due to a language barrier, then gestures or recreations of the incident can be used to indicate what was experienced during the incident (eg striking yourself across the back of the hand to show that your hand was hit as you were trying to catch the disc). Teams may also use a non-player as a translator to assist in communication during a stoppage.There are times where an event happens where it is not possible to be reasonably certain of exactly what happened (eg no one had a good view, or it happened too quickly). There are also times where it can be difficult to determine whether something ‘affected the play’. In those circumstance the disc should be returned to the last non-disputed thrower.Discussions should be as brief as possible with the preferred outcome being either a retracted call, or an accepted call. However once it becomes clear that no resolution will be reached, the disc should be returned to the last non-disputed thrower. The suggested maximum length of a stoppage due to a discussion is forty-five (45) seconds). See the Appendix for additional timing rules.

2. Playing Field
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2. Playing Field
2.1.
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2.1.

The playing field is a rectangular area with dimensions and zones as shown on Figure 1 (see above) and should be essentially flat, free of obstructions and afford reasonable player safety.

The playing field is one hundred (100) metres long by thirty-seven (37) metres wide. The playing field is broken up into a central zone that is sixty-four (64) metres long, and two end zones that are eighteen (18) metres deep at each end of the central zone.All lines should be between seventy-five (75) and one hundred and twenty (120) millimetres wide, and be marked with a non-caustic material.If space is not available to fit a full sized field, the end zones should be made shorter before the central zone is reduced. Refer to the Appendix for more detail.If there are no field markings, and the cones used to mark a sideline are not in a straight line, the sideline line is deemed to be the line between the two cones of the relevant zone the player is currently within. For example, if a player is close to the sideline in the central zone, it is the cones on each goal line along that sideline that are relevant. If a player is close to the sideline within an endzone, it is the cones at the front and rear of that end zone along that sideline that are relevant.

2.2.
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2.2.

The perimeter lines surround the playing field and consist of two (2) sidelines along the length and two (2) endlines along the width.

2.3.
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2.3.

The perimeter lines are not part of the playing field.

2.4.
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2.4.

The goal lines are the lines that separate the central zone from the end zones and are part of the central zone.

2.5.
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2.5.

The brick marks are the intersection of two (2) crossed one (1) metre lines in the central zone, located a distance equal to the length of the end zone away from each goal line, midway between the sidelines.

2.6.
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2.6.

Eight brightly-coloured, flexible objects (such as plastic cones) mark the corners of the central zone and the end zones.

2.7.
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2.7.

The immediate surroundings of the playing field shall be kept clear of movable objects. If play is obstructed by non-players or objects within three (3) metres of the perimeter line, any obstructed player or thrower in possession may call “Violation”.

3. Equipment
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3. Equipment
3.1.
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3.1.

Any flying disc acceptable to both captains may be used.

3.2.
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3.2.

WFDF may maintain a list of approved discs recommended for use.

3.3.
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3.3.

Each player must wear a uniform that distinguishes their team.

Refer to the 'WFDF Rules of Ultimate 2021-2024 - Appendix' for a detailed description of the uniform requirements at WFDF Events.

3.4.
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3.4.

No player may wear items of clothing or equipment that reasonably could harm the wearer or other players, or impede an opponent's ability to play.

This includes wristwatches, bracelets, buckles and protruding jewellery. Fully metallic studs, long studs and studs with sharp edges are not allowed on footwear.Equipment that impedes ability to play: This includes oversized items, long pieces of fabric etc. The types of gloves commonly worn by Ultimate players are allowed, but they must not in any way damage the disc or leave any residue on the disc.

4. Point, Goal and Game
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4. Point, Goal and Game
4.1.
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4.1.

A game consists of a number of points. Each point ends with the scoring of a goal.

4.2.
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4.2.

A game is finished and won by the first team to score fifteen (15) goals.

Refer to the WFDF Rules of Ultimate 2021-2024 - Appendix for a detailed description of the length of games at WFDF Events.

4.3.
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4.3.

A game is separated into two (2) periods of play, called halves. Half time occurs when a team first scores eight (8) goals.

Half time usually lasts 7 minutes in games with a Time Cap of 100 minutes. Refer to the Appendix for more details about Half time

4.4.
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4.4.

The first point of each half starts when the half starts.

4.5.
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4.5.

After a goal is scored, and the game has not been won or half time has not been reached:

4.5.1.
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4.5.1.

the next point starts immediately;

4.5.2.
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4.5.2.

the teams switch the end zone that they are defending; and

4.5.3.
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4.5.3.

the team that scored becomes defence and pulls next.

5. Teams
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5. Teams
5.1.
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5.1.

Each team will put a maximum of seven (7) players and a minimum of five (5) players on the field during each point.

Refer to the 'WFDF Rules of Ultimate 2021-2024 - Appendix' for a detailed description of team requirements for WFDF Events.In Mixed games, where men and women play on the same team, both teams should have the same gender ratio as each other on the field for each point. Events should use one of the options in the 'WFDF Rules of Ultimate 2021-2024 - Appendix' to determine the gender ratio for each point.

5.2.
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5.2.

Each team must designate a captain and a spirit captain to represent the team.

The team captain is a team member, who is eligible to participate in the game, and has been designated to represent the team in decision-making on behalf of the team before, during, and after a game. The spirit captain is a team member, who is eligible to participate in the game, and has been designated to address, discuss, and resolve spirit issues at any point throughout the competition with opponents, teammates, coaches, and game or event officials.

5.3.
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5.3.

A team may make unlimited substitutions after a goal is scored and before their team signals readiness for the pull.

6. Starting a Game
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6. Starting a Game
6.1.
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6.1.

Representatives of the two teams fairly determine which team first chooses either:

Team representatives should ensure they have the authority from their team to make the decisions listed in this section. It is recommended that team representatives use the process described in the 'WFDF Rule of Ultimate 2021-2024 - Appendix' to fairly determine the choices.

6.1.1.
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6.1.1.

whether to receive or throw the initial pull; or

6.1.2.
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6.1.2.

which end zone they will initially defend.

6.2.
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6.2.

The other team is given the remaining choice.

6.3.
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6.3.

At the start of the second half, these initial selections are switched.

7. The Pull
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7. The Pull
7.1.
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7.1.

At the start of the game, after half-time or after a score, play commences with a throw by the defence, called a "pull".

7.1.1.
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7.1.1.

Teams must prepare for the pull without unreasonable delay.

The following activities are considered reasonable prior to a pull: - Celebrating a goal - Determining who will play the next point - Determining team tactics for that point, (e.g. who is marking whom, offensive positions, what type of defence and/or offence will be used)As a guide, the pull should be released within 75 seconds of the start of the point (which starts at the start of a half, or when the previous goal was scored). Refer to the 'WFDF Rules of Ultimate 2021-2024 - Appendix' for a detailed description of the timing between points at WFDF Events.

7.2.
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7.2.

The pull may be made only after both teams have signalled their readiness by having the puller and a player on offence raise a hand above their head.

The puller is the defender who undertakes the pull. The pulling team may designate a new puller at any time before the pull.

7.3.
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7.3.

After signalling readiness all offensive players must stand with one foot on their defending goal line without changing location relative to one another until the pull is released.

The offence should be legally positioned and all non-players from the offensive team should be off the playing field before the offence can legally signal readiness.

7.4.
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7.4.

After signalling readiness all defensive players must keep their feet entirely behind the vertical plane of the goal line until the pull is released.

All non-players from the defensive team should be off the playing field before the pull is released.

7.5.
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7.5.

If a team breaches 7.3 or 7.4 the opposing team may call a violation (“offside”). This must be called before the offence touches the disc (7.8 still applies).

It is recommended that the opposing team provide a warning to the captain of the team committing this violation before it is enforced. Team should also take into account that calls should only be made where a breach is significant enough to make a difference to the outcome of the action.Offside can only be called by the players on the field, and any call made by a non-player has no consequences. However non players may assist in monitoring offside and may provide advice based on their perspective.A contested offsides call results in a stoppage of play and a re-pull. To contest an offsides call, a player on the contesting team must have perspective at least as good as the person making the call. If the call is made with the assistance of a non-player, only a similarly-positioned person would be deemed to have equal or better perspective.Note:There is no difference to whether a team has been called for their first offside violation, or they have been called offside multiple times, the outcome is the same. If either team has called offside, it is still a “dropped pull” turnover if the offence touches the disc before it hits the ground, and the offensive team fails to subsequently establish possession.If both teams are called for offside on the same pull, both outcomes described in rules 7.5.1 and 7.5.2 would applyWhat:The defence is offside and the offence calls offside after they catch the discResult:The offside call has no bearing and play continues as if no offside has been calledWhat:The defence is offside and the offence calls offside and then the disc is caught by the offenceResult:The offside call has no bearing and play continues as if no offside has been calledWhat:The defence is offside and the offence calls offside and then the disc hits the ground and stops in the offences defending endzoneResult:The offence can pick up the disc and resume play from the brick mark closest to their defending endzone. No check is required.What:The offence is offside and the defence calls offside after the offence have caught the discResult:The offside call has no bearing and play continues as if no offside has been calledWhat:The offence is offside and the defence calls offside while the disc is in the air and the pull lands out-of-boundsResult:The offence can still make a “brick” call. The thrower establishes a pivot at the brick mark closest to their defending endzone. All other offence players establish a stationary position. The defence then establish a stationary position. The disc is checked in and play resumes.Extra:If a player makes an incorrect offside call (ie by calling it after it has been touched, or the offence calls offside and also catches the pull) and play had stopped to discuss the call, players should return to where they were when the call was made and resume play with a check.

7.5.1.
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7.5.1.

If the defence chooses to call offside, the thrower must establish a pivot point as per 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, or 7.12 and then play restarts as soon as possible as if a time-out had been called at that location.

7.5.2.
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7.5.2.

If the offence chooses to call offside, they must let the disc hit the ground untouched and then resume play as if a brick has been called (no check is required).

7.6.
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7.6.

As soon as the disc is released, all players may move in any direction.

7.7.
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7.7.

No player on the defensive team may touch the disc after a pull until a member of the offensive team contacts the disc or the disc hits the ground.

What:A pull hits the ground and starts rolling towards the defending end zone, so a defender stops the disc, even before an offence player has touched it.Result:This is allowed (Rule 8.4). If the defensive player kicked the disc towards the offensive end zone, the disc may be put into play by the offence at the point where it was kicked (Rule 8.4.1)Extra:If the pull is still in the air without the offence having touched it, no defensive player may touch it, even if it flies back towards the defensive end zone (e.g. because of the wind). If a player does touch it, offence may request a re-pull.If the pull lands in the offence’s attacking end zone (i.e. a really short pull), the offence should take it on the goal line.Any offence player can also stop the pull from rolling. That player is not required to pick up the disc after stopping it.

7.8.
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7.8.

If an offensive player, in-bounds or out-of-bounds, touches the disc before it hits the ground, and the offensive team fails to subsequently establish possession, that is a turnover (a “dropped pull”).

7.9.
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7.9.

If an offensive player catches the pull and subsequently establishes possession, they must establish a pivot point at the location on the playing field nearest to where possession is established, even if that pivot point is in their defending end zone.

7.10.
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7.10.

If the disc initially contacts the playing field and never becomes out-of-bounds, the thrower must establish a pivot point where the disc stops, even if that pivot point is in their defending end zone.

7.11.
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7.11.

If the disc initially contacts the playing field and then becomes out-of-bounds without contacting an offensive player, the thrower must establish a pivot point where the disc first crossed the perimeter line, or the nearest location in the central zone if that pivot point would be in their defending end zone.

7.11.1.
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7.11.1.

If the disc does contact an offensive player before it becomes out-of-bounds the thrower must establish a pivot point where the disc first crossed the perimeter line, even if that pivot point is in their defending end zone.

7.12.
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7.12.

If the disc contacts the out-of-bounds area without first touching the playing field or an offensive player, the thrower may establish a pivot point either at the brick mark closest to their defending end zone, or at the location on the central zone closest to where the disc went out-of-bounds (Section 11.8). The binding brick option must be signalled before the disc is picked up, by any offensive player fully extending one arm overhead and calling "brick".

If an offensive player signals and calls “brick”, a different offensive player may pick up the disc.If players who had good perspective on the play cannot agree on if the pull landed out-of-bounds or in-bounds, the midpoint on the sideline between the two proposed pivot locations should be used.

8. State of Play
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8. State of Play
8.1.
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8.1.

Play is 'dead', and no turnover is possible:

8.1.1.
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8.1.1.

After the start of a point, until the pull is released;

8.1.2.
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8.1.2.

When the disc must be carried to the pivot location after the pull or after a turnover, until a pivot point is established;

8.1.3.
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8.1.3.

After a call which stops the play or any other stoppage, until the disc is checked in; or

What:A player signals a foul or violation and yells “stop” or uses the incorrect name for a call.Result:The call should be dealt with as if the player has used the correct call.Why:It is clear that the player has seen a breach of the rules. This takes precedence over the technicality of knowing the correct term.Extra:The player who used the wrong term should make it a point to learn the correct term (Rule 1.3.1) and more experienced players should tell them the correct call (Rule 1.8).

8.1.4.
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8.1.4.

After a disc hits the ground, until possession is established by the appropriate team.

A disc is deemed to have hit the ground when it contacts the ground and no player had caught the disc prior to the disc contacting the ground, or after the catch, the player loses control and the disc subsequently contacts the ground.After a pull or a turnover where the disc hits the ground in-bounds, if the offence attempts to pick up the disc in-bounds, but fails to pick it up and the disc drops to the ground, that is not a new turnover, unless the offence had full control of the disc prior to accidentally dropping the disc.

8.1.5.
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8.1.5.

Players are allowed to move during dead play (unless specified otherwise).

If, after an out-of-bounds turnover, the thrower is walking the disc to the playing field, all other players are allowed to move.

8.2.
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8.2.

Play that is not dead is "live".

8.3.
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8.3.

The thrower may not transfer possession of the disc during dead play to another player.

8.4.
4
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8.4.

Any player may attempt to stop a disc from rolling or sliding after it has hit the ground.

8.4.1.
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8.4.1.

If, in attempting to stop such a disc, a player significantly alters the disc’s position, the opposition may request that the pivot point be established at the location where the disc was contacted.

The opposition request may be made by verbal request or by pointing to the correct location.Play does not stop and a check is not required to restart play (similar to an accepted travel infraction (Rule 18.2.6)).If the offensive team is the team that significantly altered the discs position they should not move to establish the pivot at the location where the disc was contacted unless requested to by the opposition.

8.5.
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8.5.

After a turnover, and after the pull, an offensive player must move at walking pace or faster to directly retrieve the disc and establish a pivot point.

What:A turnover has occurred and the new intended thrower is standing over the disc, waiting for their team to set up.Result:The defence should remind the player they need to put the disc into play. Intentional delay of game is against spirit of the game and should be discussed by the captains as soon as possible.Why:Rule 8.5 says that the new thrower must not delay when picking up the disc.Extra:If other players are still moving towards the disc (a common situation after a turnover), the closest player can decide not to pick up the disc – this is not in itself a breach of the rules. If no player on offense has been walking towards the disc since the turnover occurred, this is a breach of the rules. It is recommended that the opposing team provide a warning to the opposition and make sure they are aware of the rule before enforcing any time limits.

8.5.1.
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8.5.1.

In addition to 8.5, after a turnover the offence must put the disc into play within the following time limits, if the disc did not become out-of-bounds, and the disc's location is:

To enforce the 10 and 20 second time limits the defence should use a Pre-stall, by loudly counting down the time limit in 5-second intervals. The Pre-stall should be noticeable by the offence player closest to the disc. The player who calls the time limits does not need to be the same player who becomes the marker. If the disc lands out-of-bounds and then rolls back and stops in the playing field, the time limits in 8.5.2 do not apply (unless games are using the WFDF Rules of Ultimate Appendix). For events where the WFDF Rules of Ultimate Appendix are in use, the time limits also apply to discs that are out-of-bounds, and for the pull. It is recommended that the opposing team provide a warning to the opposition and make sure they are aware of the rule before enforcing any time limits. If the offence believes that the time limits are being counted too quickly, they can call a fast count.The defence must allow an unobstructed path by the offence to the disc and to the pivot location.

8.5.1.1.
1
.
8.5.1.1.

in the central zone – within ten (10) seconds of the disc coming to rest.

8.5.1.2.
2
.
8.5.1.2.

in an end zone – within twenty (20) seconds of the disc coming to rest.

8.5.2.
2
.
8.5.2.

If the offence breaches 8.5, or 8.5.1, the defence may give a verbal warning (“Delay of Game” or using a pre-stall) or may call a “Violation”.

8.5.2.1.
1
.
8.5.2.1.

If, after a warning, the offence continues to breach 8.5, or 8.5.1, then 9.3.1 does not apply and the marker may commence the stall count.

After the “delay of game” call the offence should be given two (2) seconds to remedy the breach before the stall count is commenced. Refer to the 'WFDF Rules of Ultimate 2021-2024 - Appendix' for additional rules about a pre-stall.

9. Stall Count
.
9. Stall Count
9.1.
1
.
9.1.

The marker administers a stall count on the thrower by announcing “Stalling” and then counting from one (1) to ten (10). The interval between the start of each number in the stall count must be at least one (1) second.

9.2.
2
.
9.2.

The stall count must be clearly communicated to the thrower.

The stall count will usually be communicated verbally for stall count. Teams can agree on other methods to suit particular circumstances.

9.3.
3
.
9.3.

The marker may only start and continue a stall count when:

Even if the thrower still has to stop, get up after a dive, or even come back into the field because they ran out of the field, the marker may start the count. If the offensive player needs some time to recover because they had to avoid an object outside the field (for safety, there shouldn’t be any, but in practice this may be the case) the marker should not count until the player has had that time.If the thrower regains possession of an accidentally dropped disc before it contacts the ground without another player touching the disc, that possession is considered continuous. If the thrower regains possession of an accidentally dropped disc before it contacts the ground and after another player touches it, it is considered a new possession.If the thrower catches a pass in the central zone, but momentum takes them out-of-bounds, the marker can start/continue the stall count if they are within 3 metres of the pivot location, even if they are not within 3 metres of the thrower.After an interception by Team A, the marker from Team B cannot start the stall count until the thrower from Team A establishes a pivot, regardless of whether the thrower is in-bounds or out-of-bounds after the interception. If the intercepting player catches the disc while running, the marker must wait until they stop and establish a pivot before starting the stall count.

9.3.1.
1
.
9.3.1.

Play is live, or until a pivot is established after a turnover;

9.3.2.
2
.
9.3.2.

They are within three (3) metres of the thrower's pivot point, or the pivot location if the thrower is not at the location; and

9.3.3.
3
.
9.3.3.

All defenders are legally positioned (Section 18.1).

9.4.
4
.
9.4.

If the marker moves beyond the appropriate three (3) metre radius, or a different player becomes the marker, the stall count must be restarted at "Stalling one (1)".

9.5.
5
.
9.5.

After a stoppage in play the stall count is resumed as follows:

9.5.1.
1
.
9.5.1.

After an accepted breach by the defence the stall count restarts at "Stalling one (1)".

9.5.2.
2
.
9.5.2.

After an accepted breach by the offence the stall count restarts at maximum nine (9)

9.5.3.
3
.
9.5.3.

After a contested stall-out the stall count restarts at "Stalling eight (8)".

9.5.4.
4
.
9.5.4.

After all other calls, including "pick", the stall count restarts at maximum six (6). However:

All other calls includes: - Contested foul - Contested goal - Contested turnover (excluding stall-out) - Violation for sideline obstruction (2.7) - Injury - Technical

9.5.4.1.
1
.
9.5.4.1.

If there is a call involving the thrower, and a separate receiving breach, and the disc is returned to the thrower, the stall count is resumed based on the outcome of the call involving the thrower.

WhatA contested stall out is called against the thrower after the disc has been thrown. A contested receiving foul is called on the resulting pass.ResultThe disc is returned to the thrower and, as per Rule 9.5.4.1, the stall count restarts at “Stalling 8”. WhatAn accepted marking foul is called by the thrower as the disc is released. A contested receiving foul is called on the resulting pass.ResultThe disc is returned to the thrower and, as per Rule 9.5.4.1, the stall count restarts at “Stalling 1”.

9.5.4.2.
2
.
9.5.4.2.

If there is a violation called related to The Check (Section 10), the stall count resumes at the same count that was determined prior to that violation.

WhatPlay has stopped due to an accepted foul by the thrower. The stall count is going to restart at “Stalling 8”. The defence moves before the check and a violation is called by the offence.ResultEven though this is a breach by the defence, Rule 9.5.4.2 means that the stall count will still restart at “Stalling 8”.

9.6.
6
.
9.6.

To restart a stall count “at maximum n”, where “n” is determined by 9.5.2, 9.5.4, or 20.3.6, means the following:

9.6.1.
1
.
9.6.1.

If "x" is the last agreed number fully uttered prior to the call, then the stall count resumes at “Stalling (x plus one)” or “Stalling n”, whichever of those two numbers is lower.

If, after a call, a stall count is to be restarted at maximum 6 and: - the stall count was stopped at 4, the stall count restarts on “Stalling 5” - the stall count was stopped at 8, the stall count restarts on “Stalling 6” There does not need to be a gap between “stalling” and the number of the count.If there is a disagreement that cannot be resolved about what number the stall count should restart on, the midpoint between the two proposed stall counts should be used, rounded down.

10. The Check
.
10. The Check
10.1.
1
.
10.1.

Whenever play stops during a point for a foul, violation, contested turnover, specified turnover, contested goal, stoppage, discussion, or at the completion of a time-out, play must restart as quickly as possible with a check. The check may only be delayed for the discussion of a call.

A check is not required after the pull or after a turnover, even when the thrower must walk to the location of the correct pivot point. The thrower can make a pass, and the marker can start the stall count, as soon as the pivot is established at the correct position. If the pivot is not established at the correct position, this is a travel infraction. If the marker starts the stall count before the pivot is established, this is a fast count infraction. To ensure play is not interrupted, it is recommended that either the thrower or marker point to the spot where they think the pivot should be established, prior to it being established.The thrower may not begin a wind-up or other part of the throwing motion until they have established a pivot point (see rule 18.2.5.3).“Specified turnover” refers to those listed in 13.2

10.2.
2
.
10.2.

Player positioning after a call (except in the case of a time-out, and unless specified otherwise):

10.2.1.
1
.
10.2.1.

If play stops before a pass is thrown, all players must return to the location they held when the call was made.

10.2.2.
2
.
10.2.2.

If play stops after a pass is thrown, then:

10.2.2.1.
1
.
10.2.2.1.

if the disc is returned to the thrower, all players must return to the location they held when the thrower released the disc, or the time of the call, whichever is earlier.

If a long pass is thrown and there is a contested receiving foul, the players will return to where they were at the time of the throw (rather than remaining downfield after chasing down the disc).

10.2.2.2.
2
.
10.2.2.2.

if the result of the play stands all players must return to the location they held when either a player established possession, or the disc hit the ground.

10.2.2.3.
3
.
10.2.2.3.

if a player other than the thrower gains possession as a result of an accepted breach, all players must return to the location they held when the breach occurred.

10.2.3.
3
.
10.2.3.

All players must remain stationary in that location until the disc is checked in.

10.3.
3
.
10.3.

Any player may briefly extend a stoppage of play to fix faulty equipment (“equipment”), but active play may not be stopped for this purpose.

Faulty equipment includes, for example, untied shoelaces, a bent disc or a shoe that has come off. However, it is players’ responsibility to minimise such disruptions by ensuring their personal equipment is secure.

10.4.
4
.
10.4.

Prior to the check the person checking the disc in, and the nearest opposition player, must verify that their own team-mates are ready, and positioned as per 10.2.

10.5.
5
.
10.5.

If there is an unnecessary delay in checking the disc in, the opposition may give a warning (“Delay of Game”). If the delay continues, the team that gave the warning may check the disc in by calling “Disc In”, without verification from the opposition, but only if the team checking the disc in are all stationary, and positioned as per 10.2.

What:An unnecessary delay includes discussing team tactics (who is guarding whom, who should attempt to catch the next pass). A discussion to resolve the outcome of a call is not an unnecessary delay.An unnecessary delay includes standing back from the disc, wandering around to gain more time, etc. Pretending not to delay while delaying is still delaying.Result:After a “Delay of Game” called against the defence where the unnecessary delay continues, the thrower may call “Disc In” and then immediately make a pass.Extra:The person checking the disc in must still ensure that all players are stationary and in the correct position before checking the disc in.Note:It is recommended that the opposing team provide a warning to the opposition, and make sure they are aware of the rule, before enforcing this rule.

10.6.
6
.
10.6.

To restart play with a check:

It is recommended that the following steps be undertaken before checking the disc in:- “Is the offence ready?”- “Is the defense ready?”- “The stall count is starting on ‘x’”- “Disc In, in 3...2...1”- Touch the disc, touch the disc to the ground, or say “Disc In”, as appropriateIf the defender is required to touch the disc to check the disc in, the defense must actively choose to touch the disc – the thrower cannot initiate the check by tapping the disc against the defender.

10.6.1.
1
.
10.6.1.

when the thrower has the disc:

10.6.1.1.
1
.
10.6.1.1.

if there is a defender within reach, the defender must touch the disc.

10.6.1.2.
2
.
10.6.1.2.

if there is not a defender within reach, the thrower must touch the disc to the ground and may call “Disc In”.

If the thrower loses possession as a result of touching the disc to the ground, they can re-establish possession.

10.6.2.
2
.
10.6.2.

when the disc is on the ground, the defender nearest to the disc must call “Disc In”.

10.7.
7
.
10.7.

A player may call a violation regarding the check if an opponent:

A player cannot call a violation as per rule 10.7 because a player on their own team (including themselves) is in the wrong position, or is moving before the check.

10.7.1.
1
.
10.7.1.

attempts a pass without an appropriate check as per 10.6; or

10.7.2.
2
.
10.7.2.

restarts play without verification from their nearest opposition player; or

10.7.3.
3
.
10.7.3.

is moving immediately prior to the check; or

10.7.4.
4
.
10.7.4.

was not in the appropriate position.

10.7.5.
5
.
10.7.5.

After this violation call any pass does not count regardless of whether it is complete or incomplete, and possession reverts back to the thrower (unless 16.3 applies).

11. Out-of-Bounds
.
11. Out-of-Bounds
11.1.
1
.
11.1.

The entire playing field is in-bounds. The perimeter lines are not part of the playing field and are out-of-bounds. All non-players are part of the out-of-bounds area.

11.2.
2
.
11.2.

The out-of-bounds area consists of the ground which is not in-bounds and everything in contact with it, except for defensive players, who are always considered “in-bounds”.

11.3.
3
.
11.3.

An offensive player who is not out-of-bounds is in-bounds.

11.3.1.
1
.
11.3.1.

An airborne player retains their in-bounds/out-of-bounds status until that player contacts the playing field or the out-of-bounds area.

11.3.2.
2
.
11.3.2.

A player who has caught the disc, who contacts the playing field and then contacts an out-of-bounds area, is still considered in-bounds, as long as they maintain the catch until they establish possession.

11.3.2.1.
1
.
11.3.2.1.

If they leave the playing field, they must establish a pivot point at the location on the playing field where they crossed the perimeter line (unless 14.3 is in effect).

11.3.3.
3
.
11.3.3.

A thrower who contacts an out-of-bounds area is considered in-bounds until they make a pass.

11.3.4.
4
.
11.3.4.

Contact between players does not confer the state of being in- or out-of-bounds from one to another.

11.4.
4
.
11.4.

The following are out-of-bounds turnovers, and no catch is deemed to have occurred:

11.4.1.
1
.
11.4.1.

any part of an offensive receiver is out-of-bounds when they contact the disc; or

11.4.2.
2
.
11.4.2.

after catching the disc while airborne, an offensive receiver’s first contact is out-of-bounds while still in contact with the disc.

11.5.
5
.
11.5.

A disc is in-bounds once play is live, or when play starts or restarts.

11.6.
6
.
11.6.

A disc becomes out-of-bounds when it first contacts the out-of-bounds area or contacts an out-of-bounds offensive player. A disc that has been caught by an offensive player has the same in/out-of-bounds status as that player. If the disc is simultaneously caught by more than one offensive player, one of them being out-of-bounds, the disc is out-of-bounds.

11.7.
7
.
11.7.

The disc may fly outside a perimeter line and return to the playing field, and players may go out-of-bounds to make a play on the disc.

11.8.
8
.
11.8.

The place where a disc went out-of-bounds is the location where, prior to contacting an out-of-bounds area or player, the disc was most recently:

11.8.1.
1
.
11.8.1.

partly or wholly over the playing field; or

11.8.2.
2
.
11.8.2.

contacted by an in-bounds player.

11.9.
9
.
11.9.

If the disc is out-of-bounds and more than three (3) metres from the pivot location, non-players may retrieve the disc. The thrower must carry the disc the last three (3) metres to the playing field.

12. Receivers and Positioning
.
12. Receivers and Positioning
12.1.
1
.
12.1.

A “catch” occurs when a player has a non-spinning disc trapped between at least two body parts. A catch can enable a player to establish possession of the disc.

The rules have been updated since 2017 to mean that “catch” and “possession” no longer mean the same thing. A “catch” is when the disc is first controlled by the receiver. Once a player has caught the disc, they can go out-of-bounds, or have the disc touch the ground, and this is not a turnover, as long as they maintain the catch while out-of-bounds or while the disc is touching the ground, and they subsequently establish possession of the pass. A player establishes possession of a pass when:- they catch a pass and then they maintain that catch for more than one noticeable instant, and- they maintain the catch throughout all ground contact related to the catch, or until they throw the disc For a disc to be considered “trapped” the disc must be held firmly between at least two body parts and should not move relative to those two body parts.If a player initially catches a pass and then, prior to establishing possession, they do not maintain the catch (‘maintain the catch’ means to continue to have a non-spinning disc trapped between at least two body parts), that initial catch is deemed to have ended.A player may change the body parts that are being used to trap the disc, and as long as the disc continues to be trapped by at least two of the body parts during that change, it is considered the same catch (for example if a player traps the disc to their chest with their right hand, they can grab the disc by the rim with their left hand and take the disc away from their chest, and as long as they only remove their right hand once the left hand has grabbed the disc, it is considered the same catch).

12.1.1.
1
.
12.1.1.

If the player fails to maintain the catch due to subsequent ground contact related to the catch, or contact related to the catch with a team-mate or a legitimately positioned opposition player, possession is deemed to have not occurred.

Ground contact or contact with another player can be deemed to be ‘related to the catch’ if it occurs directly after the catch has been made, is a result of landing after diving to catch the disc, or occurs while the player is off-balance after catching the disc. If, for example, a player takes a running catch in the end zone, subsequently establishes possession through the first few steps after the catch, and then continues to run as part of a celebration and trips over, any loss of possession that occurs as a result of the celebration would not be deemed to be ‘related to the catch’. One way to distinguish if the contact is related to the catch is that once the player could have chosen to stop moving and be stationary and in control of their movement, any further actions are not related to the catch, even if they do not choose to come to a stop.

12.2.
2
.
12.2.

After establishing possession, that player becomes the thrower.

12.3.
3
.
12.3.

If offensive and defensive players catch the disc simultaneously, the offence retains possession.

12.4.
4
.
12.4.

A player in an established position is entitled to remain in that position and must not be contacted by an opposing player.

12.5.
5
.
12.5.

Every player is entitled to occupy any position on the field not occupied by any opposing player, provided that they do not initiate contact in taking such a position, and are not moving in a reckless or dangerously aggressive manner.

If a player does initiate contact in taking such a position, this is a Blocking foul (17.4).Moving in a 'reckless manner' could include running without looking where you are going for an extended period of time, or diving in a way that does not allow you to adjust to any legal changes of movement that an opponent might make.

12.5.1.
1
.
12.5.1.

However when the disc is in the air a player may not move in a manner solely to prevent an opponent from taking an unoccupied path to make a play on the disc.

What:Player A, who is making a play on the disc, is allowed to slow down and to impede an opponent’s movement to make a play on the disc. However Player A must not move in a way that the opponent could not reasonably avoid them – this is a Blocking foul (17.4).Some minor contact may occur in these circumstances but minor contact is not a foul.Extra:If Player A is not making a play at the disc, but is instead allowing a teammate to make a play at the disc, Player A may not move to impede an opponent. However if Player A is stationary, or does not intend to impede, this is not a violation, even if their actions do in fact impede an opponent.Note:The key word in this rule is ‘solely’. The intent of the player’s movement can be partly motivated to prevent an opponent from taking an unoccupied path to the disc, so long as it is part of a general effort to make a play on the disc. If a trailing player runs into a player in front of them, it is nearly always a foul on the trailing player.After a turnover, and/or whenever a thrower is not at the pivot location, the defence must allow an unobstructed path by the offence to the disc and/or to the pivot location

12.6.
6
.
12.6.

All players must attempt to avoid contact with other players, and there is no situation where a player may justify initiating contact. This includes avoiding initiating contact with a stationary opponent, or an opponent’s expected position based on their established speed and direction. “Making a play for the disc” is not a valid excuse for initiating contact with other players.

A player can be deemed to be “making a play on the disc” (Rule 12.6) when the disc is in the air and they are attempting to make contact with the disc in anyway i.e. to catch it or block it.When making a play at a disc, players need to ensure that they will not cause non minor contact with another player (neither their stationary position, nor their expected position based on their established speed and direction), before, during or after the attempt at the disc.Minor contact is contact that involves minimal physical force and does not alter the movements or position of another player. If non-minor contact does occur, the result of the play will likely not stand if the breach affected the play.A breach affects the play if it is reasonable to assume that the outcome of the specific play may have been meaningfully different had the breach not occurred – eg if the player would not have been able to intercept the pass without causing significant contact with their opponent, or the opponent would have been able to make a play at the disc had the player not caused contact with them.The relative skill, height and/or athletic ability, of the players involved should not typically be taken into account when considering if something affected the play or not.Resting a hand on an opponentWhatA defender is resting a hand in their opponents back to enable them to know where their opponent is, even if they are not looking at themResultThis is a violation.WhyIt is not necessarily a foul, but it is a violation as per rule 15.1.1 which says “a player intentionally initiating minor contact is still a breach of the rules, but is to be treated as a violation, and not a foul.”.

12.6.1.
1
.
12.6.1.

If a player is not reasonably certain that they will be able to make a legal play at the disc before an opponent who is moving in a legal manner, they must adjust their movements to avoid initiating contact. If that adjustment is made, the result of the play still stands.

12.7.
7
.
12.7.

The player who initiates contact is deemed to be the player who:

12.7.1.
1
.
12.7.1.

arrived at the point of contact after the opponent had already established a legitimate position at that point (either a stationary or moving opponent), or

12.7.2.
2
.
12.7.2.

adjusted their movements in a way that created unavoidable contact with an opponent moving in a legal manner, when taking into account all players’ established position, speed and direction.

12.8.
8
.
12.8.

Some minor contact may occur as two or more players move towards a single point simultaneously. Minor contact should be minimized but is not considered a foul.

What:Two opposing players are moving towards the same point in order to make a play on the disc. They are both aware of each other and are aware that minor body contact may occur. Minor body contact does occur.Result:Even though contact has occurred, this is not necessarily a foul.Why:In circumstances where one player clearly initiates contact with another, the person who initiates the contact is the person who caused the foul (ie one player is stationary and another runs into them, or one player clearly has a right to a space and an opponent changes direction and impedes that space in an unavoidable way).However there are times when both players have a right to a space and neither player can be deemed to have initiated contact. In these circumstances, if minor body contact occurs (ie players lightly bump shoulders or hips) this is not necessarily deemed a foul, as both players were responsible for causing the contact and both players were aware that contact may occur.Extra:These scenarios should only be taken into account when both players have caused contact simultaneously. If one player clearly initiated the contact, that player has caused the foul.If one player is not aware that contact is going to occur, the player who is aware that contact will occur should avoid the contact and call a Dangerous Play foul if appropriate.As per rule 17.9.2.1 if this contact occurs after the disc has been caught, or after the relevant player/s involved can no longer make a play on the disc, this must be treated as an Indirect Foul (excluding contact related to Section 17.1).Players involved in these incidents should be mindful that they often do not have the best perspective on who initiated the contact and should ask nearby players for their perspective.

12.9.
9
.
12.9.

Players may not use their arms or legs to obstruct the movement of opposing players.

12.10.
10
.
12.10.

No player may physically assist the movement of another player, nor use an item of equipment or object to assist in contacting the disc.

If an offense player physically assists the movement of a team-mate, or uses an item of equipment to assist in contacting the disc, this is a turnover – see rules 13.2.6, and 13.2.7.If a defender physically assists the movement of a team-mate, or uses an item of equipment to assist in contacting the disc (e.g. throwing a hat in the direction of the disc), this is a violation. The intended receiver should be awarded possession.

13. Turnovers
.
13. Turnovers
13.1.
1
.
13.1.

A turnover that transfers possession of the disc from one team to the other occurs when:

13.1.1.
1
.
13.1.1.

the disc contacts the ground while it is not in the possession of an offensive player (a “down”);

It is not a turnover if a player fumbles the disc prior to fully establishing possession when attempting to gain possession of the disc after a turnover, or after a pull that has already contacted the ground (see rule 8.1.4).

13.1.1.1.
1
.
13.1.1.1.

however it is not “down” if a receiver catches a pass before the disc contacts the ground, and maintains the catch while the disc is in contact with the ground.

If a receiver dives to receive a pass and catches the disc before it hits the ground, the disc can contact the ground after that, and still be “up”, as long as the player maintains the catch while the disc is touching the ground. The receiver can change the body parts that are being used to trap the disc, and as long as the disc continues to be trapped by at least one of those sets of body parts during that change, it is considered the same catch. If the receiver has pinched the disc between their fingers, and when the disc hits the ground it caused the disc to move and to no longer be pinched in the same spot, that is not a ‘maintained catch’ and therefore a turnover.If, after catching a disc that then contacts the ground, the receiver subsequently loses control while the disc is no longer touching the ground, the earlier catch is not negated - the disc can still be caught by any player.

13.1.2.
2
.
13.1.2.

a defensive player establishes possession of a pass (an “interception”);

If a defender from Team A intercepts a pass while airborne and throws the disc before the contact the ground, and the pass is incomplete, that is a turnover by Team A and Team B would become the team is possession.A defender can intentionally hit a pass towards their endzone, but if they subsequently contact the disc before it hits the ground, this is a travel as per rule 18.2.5.5.

13.1.3.
3
.
13.1.3.

the disc becomes out-of-bounds (an “out-of-bounds” or "out"); or

13.1.4.
4
.
13.1.4.

during the pull, the offence touches the disc before it hits the ground, and subsequently fails to establish possession of the disc (a “dropped pull”).

If a “dropped pull” is contested the pulling team may choose to repeat the pull or retract the call.

13.2.
2
.
13.2.

A turnover that transfers possession of the disc from one team to the other, and results in a stoppage of play, occurs when:

13.2.1.
1
.
13.2.1.

there is an accepted offensive receiving foul;

13.2.2.
2
.
13.2.2.

the thrower has not released the disc before the marker first starts to say the word “ten” in the stall count (a “stall-out”);

13.2.3.
3
.
13.2.3.

the disc is intentionally transferred from one offensive player to another without ever being completely untouched by both players (a “hand-over”);

13.2.4.
4
.
13.2.4.

the thrower intentionally deflects a pass to themselves off another player (a “deflection”);

13.2.5.
5
.
13.2.5.

in attempting a pass, the thrower catches the disc after release prior to the disc being contacted by another player (a “self-catch”);

What:The thrower accidentally releases the disc while pivoting, and then catches it again, without any other player touching the disc.Result:This is not a self-catch turnover. The marker can continue the stall count. If the thrower has moved their pivot foot a travel infraction can be called.Why:A self-catch turnover can only occur after the thrower has attempted a pass. A pass is defined (under Throw) as “A disc in flight following any throwing motion, including after a fake attempt and an intentionally dropped disc, that results in loss of contact between the thrower and the disc”. As the disc was not in flight after a throwing motion or fake attempt, no pass has occurred and therefore 13.2.5 does not apply.Extra:If the disc is accidentally released during the throwing motion as part of a fake attempt, the thrower cannot catch the disc unless it has been touched by another player.The thrower may touch a disc they have thrown, for example to prevent an opponent from catching it, or to tap it to a teammate.If the thrower does catch their own pass, the turnover location is where the thrower is when they caught the pass.

13.2.6.
6
.
13.2.6.

an offensive player intentionally assists a team-mate’s movement to catch a pass; or

A player is prohibited from intentionally pushing off of a teammate to jump higher.

13.2.7.
7
.
13.2.7.

an offensive player uses an item of equipment or object to assist in catching a pass.

13.3.
3
.
13.3.

If a player determines a turnover has occurred they must make the appropriate call immediately. If the opposition disagrees they may call "contest" and play must stop. If, after discussion, players cannot agree or it is unclear what occurred in the play, the disc must be returned to the last non-disputed thrower.

13.4.
4
.
13.4.

After a “stall-out” call:

A “stall out” turnover should typically only be contested by the thrower. If the stall count was fast from 1-5, but then the correct speed for the remainder of the count, the thrower cannot contest the stall-out on the grounds that is was a fast count.After an accepted 'stall-out' the marker from Team A calling the stall out gets the disc where the stall occurred and then may either: (1) place the disc on the ground. After acknowledgment by Team A, the former thrower from Team B loudly announces “Disc in”, or (2) retain the disc and have the former thrower from Team B restart play with a checkA marker should not automatically call 'stall-out' because they got to the count of ten. They should be certain that the disc was not yet released and that their count wasn't fast.

13.4.1.
1
.
13.4.1.

If the thrower still has possession of the disc, but they believe a fast count occurred in such a manner that they did not have a reasonable opportunity to call fast count before a stall-out, the play is treated as either an accepted defensive breach (9.5.1) or a contested stall-out (9.5.3).

13.4.2.
2
.
13.4.2.

If the thrower made a completed pass, the thrower can contest if they believe it was not a “stall-out”, or there was a fast count immediately prior to the “stall-out”.

13.4.3.
3
.
13.4.3.

If the thrower contests a stall-out but also attempts a pass, and the pass is incomplete, then the turnover stands and play restarts with a check.

13.5.
5
.
13.5.

Any offensive player may take possession of the disc after a turnover, except:

13.5.1.
1
.
13.5.1.

after an “interception” turnover, in which case the player who made the interception must maintain possession; and

If, in attempting to intercept a pass, a defender from Team A loses control of the disc due to ground contact, or accidentally drops the disc, then the possession is deemed to have not been established and any player on Team A may take possession of the disc.

13.5.2.
2
.
13.5.2.

after an offensive receiving foul, in which case the fouled player must take possession.

13.6.
6
.
13.6.

If the player in possession after a turnover, or after a pull that has already hit the ground, intentionally drops the disc, places the disc on the ground, or transfers possession of the disc, they must re-establish possession and restart play with a check.

What:Player A intercepts a pass and then intentionally drops the disc, or places the disc on the ground to allow their teammate to become the thrower.Player A retrieves an out-of-bounds disc and then intentionally drops the disc at the location of the intended pivot to allow their teammate to become the thrower.Result:This is not a “double turnover”. The opposition can call a Violation in which case play stops and Player A must take possession of the disc. Play must restart with a check.Extra:If Player A attempts a pass directly after the interception, and this pass is incomplete, this is a turnover.Note:If there is any uncertainty as to whether the players’ loss of possession was due to attempting to allow a teammate to become the thrower, or that they were in fact attempting a pass that was incomplete, the player should be given the benefit of the doubt.

13.7.
7
.
13.7.

After a turnover, the turnover location is where:

13.7.1.
1
.
13.7.1.

the disc has come to a stop or is picked up by an offensive player; or

13.7.2.
2
.
13.7.2.

the intercepting player stops; or

13.7.3.
3
.
13.7.3.

the thrower was located at the time of the call, in the case of 13.2.2, 13.2.3, 13.2.4, 13.2.5; or

13.7.4.
4
.
13.7.4.

the offensive player was located, in the case of 13.2.6 and 13.2.7; or

13.7.5.
5
.
13.7.5.

the accepted offensive receiving foul occurred.

13.8.
8
.
13.8.

If the turnover location is out-of-bounds, or the disc touched an out-of-bounds area after the turnover occurred, the thrower must establish a pivot point at the location on the central zone nearest to where the disc went out-of-bounds (Section 11.8).

Note:The official spot is just next to the line (since the line is not part of the playing field), but a pivot foot on the line is also acceptable. Given the fact that perimeter lines are only a few centimetres wide, the “error” is too small to be significant. While the rules state that the pivot point should be established in-bounds, rule 11.3.3 also indicates that it is not a problem that the pivot foot contacts an out-of-bounds area.Extra:If the disc flew out the side of the end zone, there is a cone on the spot where the pivot point should be established. Rule 2.6 states that the edge of the central zone must be marked by that cone, so the player should not move it. Therefore the pivot point should be established on the end zone line next to the cone. Players should not move the cone. Note that the player is allowed to have enough room to turn on their pivot foot (otherwise unsafe situations might occur during pivoting).

13.8.1.
1
.
13.8.1.

If 13.8 does not apply, a pivot point must be established according to 13.9, 13.10, or 13.11.

13.9.
9
.
13.9.

If the turnover location is in the central zone, the thrower must establish a pivot point at that location.

The pivot should be as close to the disc’s location as possible. Players should not place their right foot at the turnover location and then use their left foot as their pivot. This is a travel infraction (18.2.5.1).

13.10.
10
.
13.10.

If the turnover location is in the offence’s attacking end zone, the thrower must establish a pivot point at the nearest location on the goal line.

13.11.
11
.
13.11.

If the turnover location is in the offence’s defending end zone, the thrower may choose where to establish a pivot point:

13.11.1.
1
.
13.11.1.

at the turnover location, by staying at the turnover location or faking a pass; or

13.11.2.
2
.
13.11.2.

at the nearest location on the goal line to the turnover location, by moving from the turnover location.

13.11.2.1.
1
.
13.11.2.1.

The intended thrower, before picking up the disc, may signal the goal line option by fully extending one arm above their head.

The goal line signal can be useful to communicate to all players that the goal line option will be taken.If the signal is made, the thrower must move to the goal line.However it is a voluntary signal. The intended thrower may still establish the pivot at the goal line even if they do not signal the goal line option.The defence may ask the intended thrower if they intend to choose the goal line option and it is good spirit to provide a response (via hand signal), however it is not required.If the player is establishing a pivot point at the goal line the player may carry the disc at a constant or variable speed, and must move at walking pace or faster.The player must put the disc into play either at the spot of the disc or on the goal line, not in between.

13.11.3.
3
.
13.11.3.

Immediate movement, staying at the turnover location, faking a pass, or signaling the goal line option determines where to establish a pivot point and cannot be reversed.

If the thrower breaches rule 13.11.3, this should be treated as a travel infraction. Play does not stop, but the thrower must return to the correct pivot.The thrower cannot pick up the disc, look and see if there are any players to pass to, and then move to the goal line.

13.12.
12
.
13.12.

If, after an accepted turnover, play has continued unknowingly, play stops and the disc is returned to the turnover location, players resume their positions at the time the turnover occurred and play restarts with a check.

14. Scoring
.
14. Scoring
14.1.
1
.
14.1.

A goal is scored if an in-bounds player catches a legal pass and:

If a player in the endzone claps the disc between their hands, gains control of the disc for just one moment, and then loses control and the disc hits the ground this is known as a “clap spike”. A “clap spike” is not a goal as the player has not maintained the catch for more than one noticeable instant and therefore, according to the definitions, has not established possession of a pass.If a player catches a pass in the end zone while running and maintains the catch for more than one noticeable incident, and they survive any ground contact directly related to the catch, they may deliberate release the disc as they continue to run.

14.1.1.
1
.
14.1.1.

all their ground contacts are entirely within their attacking end zone, or for an airborne player, all of their first simultaneous points of ground contact after catching the disc are entirely within their attacking end zone, and

What:A player catches a pass in the end zone and very close to the sideline and then goes out of bounds and establishes possession.Result:As long as the player catches the pass (by having a non-spinning disc trapped between at least two body parts) while also being in contact with the end zone (and not being in contact with the out-of-bounds area) this is a goal.Extra:If the player who caught the disc in the end-zone does contact out-of-bounds, and then fumbles the disc before they establish possession, that is an out-of-bounds turnover, regardless of whether or not they regain possession before the disc hits the groundIf a player clearly lands on their toes first and then continues down onto their heels, their toes are the first point of ground contact. If a player lands fairly flat-footed and it is not possible to determine which part of the foot contacted the ground first, the entire foot is the first point of ground contact. Remember, the end zone line is not part of the end zone.

14.1.2.
2
.
14.1.2.

they subsequently establish possession of the disc, and maintain the catch throughout all ground contact related to the catch (note 12.1, 12.1.1).

What:'Callahan' goal: The offence throws the disc, but a defender intercepts the pass in the Offence’s defending end zone (which is the Defence’s attacking end zone).Result:The defence scores a goal.Why:Rule 14.1 states that the goal is scored when a player catches a legal pass and the first contact with the ground is inside their attacking endzone. It does not state that the pass has to be from a teammate.Extra:The term Callahan Goal is an unofficial term for this type of goal.What:A player catches the disc in the attacking end zone, but does not know this and throws the disc.Result:It is a goal, no matter the result of the additional pass.Why:Rule 14.1 does not say that the player scoring the goal must be aware of it. So if somebody has a clear perspective on it and declares it a goal, it is a goal. The disc cannot be thrown away after a goal is scored, so that action can be disregarded.Note:If it is unclear if the player scored (ie there is no agreement on the player who had best perspective, and there are opposing view points on the play) the result of the additional play stands.Extra:Players may ask for perspective from people on the side-line to determine if the pass was caught in the endzone, however it is still up to the players involved to make the final call.If the player throws an incomplete pass after catching the disc in the endzone, but before they survived all ground contact related to the catch, this is a turnover.Everyone else can move as the thrower moves to the goal line after not scoring but being in the endzone.

14.2.
2
.
14.2.

If a player believes a goal has been scored, they may call “goal” and play stops. After a contested or retracted goal call play must restart with a check and the call is deemed to have been made when the player established possession.

What:After a contested or retracted goal call where the receiver maintains possession, all players should return to where they were when the player established possession of the pass.Extra:If a player could reasonably assume that they have scored a goal, and behaves as if they have scored a goal (for example, by celebrating a goal) this should be treated as a “goal” call. This “goal” call is a stoppage of play and the result of any additional play does not stand.

14.3.
3
.
14.3.

If a player in possession of the disc ends up with their selected pivot point behind the attacking goal line without scoring a goal according to 14.1, the player must establish a pivot point at the nearest location on the goal line.

14.4.
4
.
14.4.

The time at which a goal is deemed to have been scored is when the player established possession.

If there is discussion about a goal, and after discussion the goal is confirmed, for the purposes of time cap rules, the point is deemed to have ended when the player established possession and the player in possession was in contact with the endzone. However the time limits between points will not commence until the discussion is resolved.

15. Calling Fouls, Infractions and Violations
.
15. Calling Fouls, Infractions and Violations
15.1.
1
.
15.1.

A breach of the rules due to non-minor contact between two or more opposing players is a foul.

Non-minor contact that occurs accidentally is still a foul – it does not need to be intentional. In fact there should be no intentional contact in Ultimate.

15.1.1.
1
.
15.1.1.

A player intentionally initiating minor contact is still a breach of the rules, but is to be treated as a violation, and not a foul.

15.2.
2
.
15.2.

A breach of the rules regarding a Marking or Travel breach is an infraction. Infractions do not stop play.

Play does not stop for an infraction call. However travel and marking infractions can lead to a stoppage if, for example, after a travel infraction a completed pass is thrown, after an egregious marking infraction, or after a contested infraction call.

15.3.
3
.
15.3.

Every other breach of the rules is a violation.

15.4.
4
.
15.4.

Only the player fouled may claim a foul, by calling “Foul”.

If a breach is committed and not called, the player committing the breach should inform the opponent or their team. However play must not be stopped to do so.

15.5.
5
.
15.5.

In general only the thrower may claim an infraction, by calling the specific name of the infraction.

15.5.1.
1
.
15.5.1.

However any offensive player may call a double team, and any defensive player may call a travel infraction.

Only the thrower may call marking infractions, except in the case of a double team. For marking infractions excluding double team, if other players notice a marking infraction they may alert the thrower of this, however this call will have no effect. The thrower may subsequently make the call themselves, in which case the opposition should respond accordingly.Any offensive player may make a double team call, however if the call is not made by the thrower, the call should be made loud enough for the thrower and marker to hear. If the thrower echoes a double team call made by a teammate, this should be treated as the same double team call (eg the stall count needs only to be reduced one time.)Any opposing player may make a travel infraction call, however if the call is not made by the marker, the call should be made loud enough for the thrower and marker to hear.

15.6.
6
.
15.6.

Any opposing player may claim a violation, by calling the specific name of the violation or "Violation", unless specified otherwise by the particular rule.

15.7.
7
.
15.7.

When a foul or violation call is made that stops play, players must stop play by visibly or audibly communicating the stoppage as soon as they are aware of the call and all players should echo calls on the field. If play has stopped for a discussion without any call having been made, a call is deemed to have been made when the discussion started.

15.8.
8
.
15.8.

Calls must be made immediately after the breach is recognised.

If a player who is unable to make the call recognises it, such as a receiver in the case of a straddle, the breach can still be called once the player who can make the call recognises it (ie the thrower in this example). However if, for example, the marker recognises that the thrower has established a pivot at the incorrect spot, they cannot wait until the stall count gets to 6 before they call a travel.In addition, if a player had a reasonable opportunity to recognise that a breach had occurred, but continued play as if no breach had occurred, they should not make the call later on. For example if the thrower establishes a pivot at the incorrect spot, and the marker starts the stall count, then once the stall count reaches 6, the marker should not call travel for the pivot having been established at the incorrect spot, even if they do not notice until the stall count reaches 6.If play has stopped for a discussion, a player can still make a call as part of the discussion.A player that makes a foul, violation, infraction, or turnover call must have reasonable grounds to think that a breach or turnover might have occurred, but they do not have to be certain that it has occurred. If a player believes that they have reasonable grounds to think that a breach or turnover might have occurred, they may call a stoppage (without making a specific call) to enable players to discuss the situation and determine what did occur and the appropriate outcome.

15.9.
9
.
15.9.

After a player initiates a stoppage incorrectly, including after mishearing a call, not knowing the rules, or not making the call immediately:

For example, if a defender tells a receiver to stop play, but play was not supposed to have stopped and a pass to the receiver results in a turnover, the disc is returned to the thrower and the stall count would resume at “Stalling 1” as per rule 9.5.1.If there is disagreement over who initiated the stoppage incorrectly, then the disc should be returned to the last non-disputed thrower.

15.9.1.
1
.
15.9.1.

if the opposition gains or retains possession, any subsequent play stands.

15.9.2.
2
.
15.9.2.

if the opposition does not gain or retain possession, the disc must be returned to the last non-disputed thrower, unless 16.3 applies. The stall count resumes as if an accepted breach has been caused by the player who initiated the stoppage incorrectly.

15.10.
10
.
15.10.

If the player against whom the foul, infraction or violation has been called disagrees that it occurred, or does not think it is a correct call, they may call “Contest”.

If, for example, the player against whom the breach was called thinks that the breach was not significant enough to make a difference to the outcome of the action, they can contest the call.

15.11.
11
.
15.11.

If a player making any call subsequently determines that their call was incorrect, they can retract the call, by calling "Retracted". The stall count resumes as if an accepted breach has been caused by that player.

If, for example, the marker calls a foul against the thrower, and after discussion the marker retracts their call, the stall count would resume at “Stalling 1” as per rule 9.5.1.

15.12.
12
.
15.12.

If multiple breaches occur on the same play or before play stops, the outcomes should be resolved in reverse sequence (latest breach first, earliest breach last).

For example, the marker calls an offensive foul on the thrower during the throw, then later a receiver calls a defensive foul on a defender during the reception on an incomplete pass. The fouls are resolved in reverse sequence. First, the receiving foul is resolved (here, assumed accepted), granting possession to the offensive receiver, then the throwing foul is resolved (here, assumed accepted), returning the disc to the thrower. The earlier infraction (offensive foul on the thrower) takes precedence over the later infraction (defensive foul on the receiver), resulting in the disc returning to the original thrower.If the disc is returned to the thrower, the stall count must be resolved as per rule 9.5.4.1.

15.13.
13
.
15.13.

Players are encouraged to use the WFDF Hand Signals to communicate all calls.

16. Continuation after a Call
.
16. Continuation after a Call
16.1.
1
.
16.1.

Whenever a foul or violation call is made, or a player attempts to stop play in any way, play stops immediately and no turn over is possible (unless in situations specified in 15.9, 16.2, and 16.3).

16.2.
2
.
16.2.

If a foul or violation:

16.2.1.
1
.
16.2.1.

is called against the thrower and the thrower attempts a pass, or

16.2.2.
2
.
16.2.2.

is called by the thrower during the act of throwing, or

If the thrower calls a foul before they are in the act of throwing, play must stop. If the thrower does incorrectly continue play, the disc must come back to the thrower unless 16.3 applies - this applies to both a completed pass, and a turnover.If the thrower is fouled before throw, but the foul continues to occur during throw, then 16.2 applies. If the foul occurs before the throw, but the thrower waits to call the foul during the act of throwing, 15.9 applies.

16.2.3.
3
.
16.2.3.

is called or occurs when the disc is in the air, then play continues until possession has been established.

Unlike in previous version of the rules, continuation does not apply to calls made (not involving the thrower) during the act of throwing. So if a foul is called by the dump receiver while the thrower is in the act of throwing, play should stop immediately. If the thrower continues the throw, with no impact from the foul call, the result of the pass can stand as per 16.3. However if the thrower heard the foul call while they were throwing, and this impacted their throw and the pass was incomplete, 16.3 would not apply and therefore the disc would be returned to the thrower.Additionally if a pick is called while the thrower is in the act of throwing, and the thrower attempted to stop the throw as a result of the pick call, and the pass is incomplete, the disc would be returned to the thrower.

16.2.4.
4
.
16.2.4.

Once possession has been established:

16.2.4.1.
1
.
16.2.4.1.

If the team that called the foul or violation gains or retains possession as a result of the pass, the play stands. Play can continue without a stoppage if the player who made the foul or violation call makes a “Play on” call as soon as possible.

If “play-on” is called before possession is established, and then the team that called the breach does not gain/retain possession, the “play on” call should be ignored and play should stop. The players involved must still determine if the breach actually affected the outcome, before determining whether the play should stand.Any player recognizing that play should continue without a stoppage should announce 'play on”. If the player who called the breach does not announce 'play on' and the opposing team is uncertain whether play should continue, the opposing team has the option to stop play by calling 'violation'.If the team that called the foul gains or retains possession, but the foul has impacted on their ability to continue play, they can call an indirect foul once possession has been established. This will stop play and enable them to make up any positional disadvantage caused by the foul.

16.2.4.2.
2
.
16.2.4.2.

If the team that called the foul or violation does not gain or retain possession as a result of the pass, play must be stopped.

16.2.4.2.1.
1
.
16.2.4.2.1.

If the team that called the foul or violation believes that possession has been affected by the foul or violation, the disc will be returned to the thrower for a check (unless the specific rule says otherwise).

16.3.
3
.
16.3.

Regardless of when any call is made, if the players involved from both teams agree that the event or call did not affect the outcome, the play stands. This rule is not superseded by any other rule.

An event (including a foul, violation, injury) or call affects the outcome if the outcome would have been meaningfully different had it not occurred. For example, a call affected the play if a receiver is aware that the call has been made before the throw and therefore slows down and fails to complete the pass. During a stoppage to discuss these situations it is reasonable for a player to ask the opposition if they think the event or call affected the outcome. If the opposition thinks that it was affected, they should be able to provide some form of valid justification.There is no specific limit on how many passes can occur before 16.3 no longer applies. However once more than one pass has been completed, it becomes increasingly unlikely that the event, or call, will not affect the outcome.

16.3.1.
1
.
16.3.1.

If the play resulted in a goal, the goal stands.

16.3.2.
2
.
16.3.2.

If the play did not result in a goal the affected players may make up any positional disadvantage caused by the event or call and restart play with a check.

17. Fouls
.
17. Fouls
17.1.
1
.
17.1.

Dangerous Play:

17.1.1.
1
.
17.1.1.

Actions demonstrating reckless disregard for the safety of fellow players, or posing significant risk of injury to fellow players, or other dangerously aggressive behaviours, are considered dangerous play and must be treated as a foul, regardless of whether or when contact occurs. This rule is not superseded by any other foul rule. If the dangerous play call is accepted, this must be treated as the most relevant foul from Section 17.

Dangerous Play fouls can be called before an event to avoid a potential collision e.g. a defender runs/layouts in a way that an accident would occur if the offence were to continue. When this occurs it is correct to not make a play on the disc & to call a ‘dangerous play’ foul.Players calling a Dangerous Play foul before a potential incident need to have reasonable grounds for doing so. They should actually be able to see the on coming player and have some reason to believe that player will not avoid contact – this could include a previous history of that player to not avoid contact.You cannot call dangerous play if you feel you could have made a play on the disc, but that would have resulted in you initiating contact. In that instance, you should just refrain from making the play.The following are non-exhaustive examples of dangerous play:• significantly colliding with a mostly stationary opponent, • jumping into a group of mostly stationary players, • diving around or through a player that results in contact with a player's back or legs, • running without looking when there is a likelihood of other players occupying the space into which the player is traveling, • jumping or otherwise leaving the ground where it is likely that a significant collision will result, • wild or uncontrolled throwing motions, • initiating contact with a player's head, • initiating contact with an airborne player's lower body that prevents them from landing on their feet, and • jumping right in front of a sprinting player in a manner where contact is unavoidable

17.2.
2
.
17.2.

Receiving Fouls:

17.2.1.
1
.
17.2.1.

A Receiving Foul occurs when a player initiates non-minor contact with an opponent before, while, or directly after, either player makes a play on the disc.

What:A player on offence is chasing after a long throw and is tripped over, while running, by the defence. It is unclear if the offence player would have been able to get to the disc had there been no foul.Result:If the offence player believes the defence initiated the non-minor contact they can call a foul. If the defence player accepts that they fouled the offence player, but they do not believe the offence player had a reasonable chance at catching the disc, they may invoke rule 16.3 and try to seek agreement that the result of the play should stand. If the players cannot agree what would most likely have occurred in the play, the disc must be returned to the thrower and the players return to where they were when the disc was released (rule 1.12 and 10.2.2 ).Extra:If it is clear to other players that the offence player did not have any chance at making the catch had there been no foul, they should encourage the offence player to let the turnover stand.If the foul is accepted and it is agreed that it did affect the play, the offence player gains possession where the foul occurred, not where they would have caught the pass.A receiving foul can be deemed to have occurred if any player involved in the foul is attempting to make contact with the disc in anyway i.e. to catch it or block it.Non minor contact that occurs directly after the attempt at the disc (i.e. a defender catches the disc and then collides with an offence player) is considered to be a receiving foul. However contact with the opponent’s arms after the block occurs is not a sufficient basis for a foul as per rule 17.2.1.1.If Player A initiates contact with an opponent (Player B) that is the cause for Player B contacting Player A’s teammate (Player C), then Player C cannot call a foul on Player B as they did not initiate the contact. If the disc is in the air but the players involved in the foul were running to receive or defend the next pass after possession has been established, this should be treated as an Indirect foul (rule 17.8).An accepted offensive receiving foul is a turnover (rule 17.2.2); however an accepted indirect foul by the offence is not (rule 17.8.2).If players have dived to make a play at the disc, the disc is contacted, but not caught, and then one of the players attempts to make a second attempt but they are obstructed by the player who had dived on the ground, this is not a foul by the obstructing player, unless they deliberately move to obstruct the second attempt (in which case, this could be a violation of rule 12.5.1 even if no contact occurs).

17.2.1.1.
1
.
17.2.1.1.

Contact with an opponent’s arms or hands, that occurs after the disc has been caught, or after the opponent can no longer make a play on the disc, is not a sufficient basis for a foul, but should be avoided (excluding contact related to Section 17.1 and 17.3).

17.2.2.
2
.
17.2.2.

After an accepted receiving foul the fouled player gains possession at the location of the breach, even if that location is in an end zone, and play restarts with a check. If, after the check, 14.3 applies, the stall count can not be started until a pivot point is established at the nearest location on the goal line. If the foul is contested, the disc is returned to the thrower.

After an accepted defensive receiving foul in the offense’s attacking end zone, the receiver gets possession of the disc in the end zone. The disc is checked in there, and they must then walk to the nearest spot on the goal line, as per 14.2. All players may move once the disc is checked in, and the marker may only start the stall count once the pivot is established at the goal line.If the receiver drops the disc to the ground as they walk to the goal line, this is a turnover as the play is live.

17.3.
3
.
17.3.

Strip Fouls:

17.3.1.
1
.
17.3.1.

A Strip Foul occurs when an opponent fouls a player and that causes the player to drop a disc they caught or to lose possession of the disc.

A player may not call a strip if they had only momentary contact with or lacked control of the disc prior to an opponent contacting the disc.If a defender hits the disc in flight before it is caught by the receiver, and that contact with the disc causes the receiver to drop the pass, that is not a strip. The defender is allowed to hit a disc in flight, when they hit a disc that has been caught by a receiver, that is when it can be treated as a strip foul.

17.3.2.
2
.
17.3.2.

If the reception would have otherwise been a goal, and the foul is uncontested, a goal is awarded.

If an accepted strip foul occurs where the offence causes the defence to drop a pass they have intercepted in the defences attacking end zone, this should be treated as a goal for the defence.

17.4.
4
.
17.4.

Blocking Fouls:

17.4.1.
1
.
17.4.1.

A Blocking Foul occurs when a player takes a position that an opponent moving in a legal manner will be unable to avoid, taking into account the opponents expected position based on their established speed and direction, and non-minor contact results. This is to be treated as either a receiving foul or an indirect foul, whichever is applicable.

Every player has space reserved in the direction of their movement. The size of this space depends on a lot of things (speed, direction of view, playing surface, etc) and is as large as the answer to the question 'if a tree suddenly materialized in this space, could the player avoid contact (without a manoeuvre risking the health of their joints)?'Moving in a way that this space becomes unreasonably large (running full speed with your eyes closed without checking frequently where you are going would be an extreme example) is considered reckless.If two players have the same space reserved at the same time and contact occurs, whoever initiated the contact is guilty of the foul.Players are free to move any way they like as long as this does not cause an unavoidable collision.A collision is avoidable for a player if the player could have reacted in time and avoided it, given the circumstances involving their speed and line of sight.

17.5.
5
.
17.5.

Force-out Fouls:

17.5.1.
1
.
17.5.1.

A Force-out Foul occurs when a receiver is in the process of establishing possession of the disc, and is fouled by a defensive player before establishing possession, and the contact caused the receiver:

Force-out fouls do not only apply to an airborne player. If, for example, a receiver catches a pass in the end zone, but before they are able to establish possession they are fouled, and the foul means they lose control, but they are able to establish possession in the central zone, that is a force-out foul and would result in a goal.

17.5.1.1.
1
.
17.5.1.1.

to become out-of-bounds instead of in-bounds; or

17.5.1.2.
2
.
17.5.1.2.

to catch the disc in the central zone instead of their attacking end zone.

17.5.2.
2
.
17.5.2.

If the receiver would have caught the disc in their attacking end zone, it is a goal;

17.5.3.
3
.
17.5.3.

If the force-out foul is contested, the disc is returned to the thrower if the receiver became out-of-bounds, otherwise the disc stays with the receiver.

17.6.
6
.
17.6.

Defensive Throwing (Marking) Fouls:

17.6.1.
1
.
17.6.1.

A Defensive Throwing Foul occurs when:

17.6.1.1.
1
.
17.6.1.1.

A defensive player is illegally positioned (Section 18.1), and there is non-minor contact between the illegally positioned defensive player and the thrower; or

If a defender is legally marking the thrower and then a second defender commits a double team, the second defender is deemed to be the illegally positioned defensive player. Therefore it would only be non-minor contact between the thrower and the second defender that would automatically result in a defensive throwing foul.

17.6.1.2.
2
.
17.6.1.2.

A defensive player initiates non-minor contact with the thrower, or there is non-minor contact resulting from the thrower and the defender both vying for the same unoccupied position, prior to the release.

17.6.1.3.
3
.
17.6.1.3.

If a Defensive Throwing Foul occurs prior to the thrower releasing the disc and not during the throwing motion, the thrower may choose to call a contact infraction, by calling “Contact”. After a contact infraction that is not contested, play does not stop and the marker must resume the stall count at one (1).

What:A defensive player initiates non-minor contact with the thrower prior to the act of throwing, but the thrower does not wish to stop play.Result:The thrower can call a contact infraction as per rule 17.6.1.3. If accepted, play does not stop, but the stall count must be resumed at 1.Extra:The thrower may also choose to call a foul (rule 17.6) on this contact, in which case play stops.If the thrower accidentally calls “Contact” when the contact occurred during the throwing motion this should be treated as foul as per rule 17.6 .Contact should only be called when the contact is non minor – e.g. it affects the ability of the thrower to freely pivot, fake, or prepare to throw.For minor contact, the thrower may choose to call a disc space infraction.

17.7.
7
.
17.7.

Offensive Throwing (Thrower) Fouls:

17.7.1.
1
.
17.7.1.

An Offensive Throwing Foul occurs when the thrower is solely responsible for initiating non-minor contact with a defensive player who is in a legal position.

Note:If the thrower moves into a non-moving marker who is legally positioned, this a foul by the thrower. i.e. if the thrower moves into a space the marker has already occupied when the thrower started the throwing motion, and the marker is not in breach of; straddle, disc space, wrapping.Extra:If a thrower intentionally makes contact with a legally positioned marker this is an offensive foul and also a breach of the most important rule - Spirit of the Game.If the marker is legally positioned and is moving their arm directly away from the thrower, and the thrower initiates contact with the markers arm, this is a foul by the offence.

17.7.2.
2
.
17.7.2.

Contact occurring during the thrower's follow through is not a sufficient basis for a foul, but should be avoided.

17.8.
8
.
17.8.

Indirect Fouls:

17.8.1.
1
.
17.8.1.

An Indirect Foul occurs when there is non-minor contact between a receiver and a defensive player that does not directly affect an attempt to make a play on the disc.

What:An offensive player accidentally runs into a defensive player and knocks them over. The thrower has not released the disc. The defensive player calls a foul.Result:Play stops. The defensive player makes up any positional disadvantage caused by the foul (Rule 17.8).Why:The foul did not occur before, during, or directly after an attempt to catch the disc and is therefore not a receiving foul.Extra:If the disc had been in the air when the foul occurred, but the foul did not occur before, during, or directly after an attempt by those players to catch the disc, then play would continue until possession was established. If the offensive team retained possession, the defensive player should then make up any positional disadvantage caused by the foul and play would restart with a check (16.3.2).If the offense commits a foul after establishing possession in the air, but the foul was caused by actions not related to the process of making the catch (eg while attempting to intentionally land in the end zone), this should be treated as an indirect foul.

17.8.2.
2
.
17.8.2.

If the foul is accepted the fouled player may make up any positional disadvantage caused by the foul.

17.9.
9
.
17.9.

Offsetting Fouls:

17.9.1.
1
.
17.9.1.

If accepted fouls are called by offensive and defensive players on the same play, these are offsetting fouls, and the disc must be returned to the last non-disputed thrower.

17.9.2.
2
.
17.9.2.

If there is non-minor contact that is caused by two or more opposing players moving towards a single point simultaneously, this must be treated as offsetting fouls.

Note:There are times when both players have a right to a space and neither player can be deemed to have initiated contact. In these circumstances, if body contact occurs that affects the outcome of the play, this is to be treated as an Offsetting Foul (17.9.2). The disc shall be returned to the thrower (unless 17.9.2.1 applies).Extra:Minor contact may occur as two or more players move towards a single point simultaneously but this should not be considered a foul.

Players involved in these incidents should be mindful that they often do not have the best perspective on who initiated the contact and should ask nearby players for their perspective.

If two opposing players both cause non-dangerous contact by jumping to the same point simultaneously to catch a pass, but one player catches the pass before the contact occurs, the result of the play will stand. However if an offsetting foul is called, any players that had fallen over as a result of the contact will be able to stand up before play resumes.

17.9.2.1.
1
.
17.9.2.1.

However if this occurs after the disc has been caught, or after the relevant player/s involved can no longer make a play on the disc, this must be treated as an Indirect Foul (excluding contact related to Section 17.1).

18. Infractions and Violations
.
18. Infractions and Violations
18.1.
1
.
18.1.

Marking Infractions:

18.1.1.
1
.
18.1.1.

Marking infractions include the following:

18.1.1.1.
1
.
18.1.1.1.

“Fast Count” – the marker:

18.1.1.1.1.
1
.
18.1.1.1.1.

starts or continues the stall count illegally,

18.1.1.1.2.
2
.
18.1.1.1.2.

does not start or restart the stall count with the word “Stalling”,

18.1.1.1.3.
3
.
18.1.1.1.3.

counts in less than one second intervals,

18.1.1.1.4.
4
.
18.1.1.1.4.

does not correctly reduce or reset the stall count when required, or

18.1.1.1.5.
5
.
18.1.1.1.5.

does not start the stall count from the correct number.

If a fast count infraction is called because the marker started the stall count from the incorrect number (e.g. when they are not within 3 metres of the thrower, or after moving more than 3 metres from the thrower) the marker should automatically reset the stall count at the correct number, even if that means reducing the count by more than 2 seconds.If a marking infraction is called before the stall count reaches 2, the marker must reduce the stall count to 1 (it should not result in a “negative stall count”).

18.1.1.2.
2
.
18.1.1.2.

“Straddle” – a line between a defensive player’s feet comes within one disc diameter of the thrower’s pivot point.

18.1.1.3.
3
.
18.1.1.3.

“Disc Space” – any part of a defensive player is less than one disc diameter away from the torso of the thrower. However, if this situation is caused solely by movement of the thrower, it is not an infraction.

The thrower may choose to call 'disc space' for both straddle and wrapping violations as appropriate. However, the thrower may also choose to call the more specific violation for clearer communication to the marker about what needs to be corrected.

18.1.1.4.
4
.
18.1.1.4.

“Wrapping” – a line between a defensive player’s hands or arms comes within one disc diameter of the thrower’s torso, or any part of the defensive player’s body is above the thrower’s pivot point. However, if this situation is caused solely by movement of the thrower, it is not an infraction.

The marker is allowed to stand with arms stretched out to attempt to ‘force’ the thrower to throw in a particular direction, as long as they are legally positioned.The defenders head is considered to be part of their body.

18.1.1.5.
5
.
18.1.1.5.

"Double Team" –a defensive player other than the marker is within three (3) metres of the thrower's pivot point without also guarding another offensive player. However, merely running across this area is not a double team.

What:Two or more defensive players are within 3 metres of the thrower and are not guarding any other players.Result:The offence may call “double team” unless all “extra” defenders can claim they are guarding (within three meters of an offensive player and are reacting to that offensive player) another offensive player, or if they are merely running across the area.Note:In zone defence it is common for a defender to come within 3 metres of the thrower when another offensive player enters into that same area. To avoid a double team the defender must be guarding that offensive player, which can include attempting to stop a pass to that offensive player.If the defence does not believe they have committed a double team infraction they may call contest and play shall stop – they cannot just ignore the call.Any number of defensive players are allowed to guard the same offensive receiver.Extra:When a double team is called and is accepted, the marker must first wait for the illegal positioning to be corrected (18.1.4) and then resume the stall count with the number last fully uttered before the call, minus one (1) (18.1.3).Any offensive player may make a double team call, however if the call is not made by the thrower, the call should be made loud enough for the thrower and marker to hear. If the thrower echoes a double team call made by a teammate, this should be treated as the same double team call (eg the stall count needs only to be reduced one time.)If a defender intentionally double teams the thrower, with no regard for any other offensive players, and gets a block, this can be addressed by rule 1.2.1.

18.1.1.6.
6
.
18.1.1.6.

“Vision” - a defensive player uses any part of their body to intentionally obstruct the thrower’s vision.

18.1.2.
2
.
18.1.2.

A marking infraction may be contested by the defence, in which case play stops.

18.1.2.1.
1
.
18.1.2.1.

If a pass has been completed, a contested or retracted marking infraction must be treated as a violation by the offence, and the disc must be returned to the thrower.

After a contested marking infraction where a pass has been completed, it is the marker's responsibility to announce if play was affected for the purpose of rule 16.3. In limited situations for contested marking infraction calls, when the marker diverts their attention away from marking while reasonably and quickly assessing the conditions to the thrower's marking infraction call, the marker could determine that play was affected. For example, the thrower calls straddle, and while the marker is looking at their feet to assess their marking position, the thrower completes a throw around the marker. If the marker subsequently contests the straddle because they assessed that they weren't committing a marking infraction, they could claim that play was affected and the disc should be returned to the thrower.

18.1.3.
3
.
18.1.3.

After all marking infractions listed in 18.1.1. that are not contested, the marker must resume the stall count with the number last fully uttered before the call, minus one (1).

Note:When a marking violation is called, the marker should immediately stop counting. The defence should then correct the violation and the marker can then resume the count at the appropriate number.To resume the stall count with the number last uttered before the call minus one, is the same as subtracting two seconds from the stall count eg. Stalling One, Two, Three, Fast Count, Two, Three etc.Extra:If more than one marking infraction is called during the same thrower possession it does not impact how the stall count is adjusted – the marker must still resume the stall count with the number last fully uttered before the call, minus one (1).

18.1.4.
4
.
18.1.4.

The marker may not resume counting until any illegal positioning has been corrected. To do otherwise is a subsequent marking infraction.

18.1.5.
5
.
18.1.5.

Instead of calling a marking infraction, the thrower may call a marking violation and stop play if;

18.1.5.1.
1
.
18.1.5.1.

the stall count is not corrected,

If the marker does not adjust the stall count the thrower should call a fast count infraction (18.1.1.1). If the marker still fails to adjust the stall count the thrower may call a Violation. Play stops and the breach should be explained to the marker.

18.1.5.2.
2
.
18.1.5.2.

there is no stall count,

18.1.5.3.
3
.
18.1.5.3.

there is an egregious marking infraction, or

This includes flagrant breaches such as four defenders being around the thrower, the marker completely surrounding the thrower with their arms, and the marker only taking two seconds to reach “stalling 6”.

18.1.5.4.
4
.
18.1.5.4.

there is a pattern of repeated marking infractions.

18.1.6.
6
.
18.1.6.

If a marking infraction, or a marking violation, is called and the thrower also attempts a pass before, during or after the call, the call has no consequences (unless 18.1.2.1 applies) and if the pass is incomplete, then the turnover stands.

18.2.
2
.
18.2.

“Travel” Infractions:

18.2.1.
1
.
18.2.1.

The thrower may attempt a pass at any time as long as they are entirely in-bounds or have established an in-bounds pivot point.

18.2.1.1.
1
.
18.2.1.1.

However an in-bounds player who catches a pass while airborne may attempt a pass prior to contacting the ground.

18.2.2.
2
.
18.2.2.

After catching the disc, and landing in-bounds, the thrower must reduce speed as quickly as possible, without changing direction, until they have established a pivot point.

18.2.2.1.
1
.
18.2.2.1.

However if a player catches the disc while running or jumping the player may release a pass without attempting to reduce speed and without establishing a pivot point, provided that:

WhatAn offensive player catches the disc while running and passes the disc while still in the process of slowing down, and after two additional points of contact with the ground.ResultThis is allowed, provided that the player was attempting to slow down as quickly as possible and they maintain contact with the playing field throughout the throwing motion.ExtraOnce the thrower has released the disc they do not need to come to a stop.

18.2.2.1.1.
1
.
18.2.2.1.1.

they do not change direction or increase speed until they release the pass; and

18.2.2.1.2.
2
.
18.2.2.1.2.

a maximum of two additional points of contact with the ground are made after the catch and before they release the pass.

18.2.3.
3
.
18.2.3.

The thrower may move in any direction (pivot) only by establishing a “pivot point”, which is a specific point on the ground with which one part of their body remains in constant contact until the disc is thrown.

18.2.4.
4
.
18.2.4.

A thrower who is not standing can use any part of their body as the pivot point.

18.2.4.1.
1
.
18.2.4.1.

If they stand up it is not a travel, but only if a pivot point is established at the same location.

18.2.5.
5
.
18.2.5.

A travel infraction occurs if:

The defence should not call travel under section 18.2 for failing to slow dwon unless they have evidence that the player was not trying to stop while in possession of the disc. In particular:- a player who catches and throws the disc while entirely in the air does not need to slow down- the length of a player's strides should decrease as they slow down- a player is not allowed to maintain a constant speed while catching and throwing the disc, unless they catch and throw in the air, or a maximum of two additional points of contact with the ground are made after the catch and before they release the pass - it should never take a player more than 5 steps to come to a stopUnless the defence has evidence along those lines, they should not call travel.Players should also take into consideration that a player may change direction after they have established a pivot – any change of direction after a pivot has been established should not be called a travel.In some situations, a receiver may need to maintain speed briefly or change direction slightly to avoid contact with a diving defender or to jump over a player on the ground. This is expected in such situations and should not be considered a travel.If the travel is caused solely by contact that is initiated by an opponent, this should not be considered a travel.If play has stopped, the thrower may change the part of their body that they have in contact with the pivot spot. This is not a travel.If a player aims to release a pass without attempting to stop in accordance with 18.2.2.1 but then change their mind and stop without releasing the pass after more than two additional points of contact, this is a travel infraction and the travel is deemed to have occurred when they failed to reduce their speed.A player is deemed to be changing direction after catching the disc if there is sideways movement of their centre of mass before a pivot is established, or their pivot point is not established where their foot would naturally have stopped based on their previous motion.

18.2.5.1.
1
.
18.2.5.1.

the thrower establishes a pivot point at an incorrect location, including by not reducing speed as quickly as possible after a catch, or changing direction after a catch;

18.2.5.2.
2
.
18.2.5.2.

the thrower releases a pass in breach of 18.2.2.1;

18.2.5.3.
3
.
18.2.5.3.

anytime the thrower must move to a specified location, the thrower does not establish a pivot point before a wind-up or throwing action begins;

After a pull, a turnover not in the central zone, or after momentum causes a player to leave the playing field, the thrower cannot take a run up to make a pass whereby they start their wind up or throwing action before they have established a pivot point.

18.2.5.4.
4
.
18.2.5.4.

the thrower fails to keep the established pivot point until releasing the disc;

18.2.5.5.
5
.
18.2.5.5.

a player intentionally bobbles, fumbles or delays the disc to themselves, for the sole purpose of moving in a specific direction.

Any contact with the disc that is not a clean catch can be considered tipping (the rules also use the terms bobbling, fumbling, and delaying).If a player intentionally tips the disc to themselves into the endzone so that they can score, this is a travel infraction.If a player tips the disc so a team-mate can catch it in the end zone, this is a goal.If a player fumbles with a disc while catching it and finally manages to get control over it in the end zone, this is a goal, unless the fumbling was intentional.If they tip the disc solely in order to assist themselves to catch a disc that they otherwise would not have been able to gain possession of, that is not a travel

18.2.6.
6
.
18.2.6.

After an accepted travel infraction is called ("travel"), play does not stop.

What:An accepted Travel infraction is called and the thrower has not released the disc.Result:Play does not stop. The thrower must establish the pivot at the correct spot as per rule 18.2.6.Extra:If accepted, all players, except the thrower, are free to move anywhere on the field.Play does not stop, but the disc is live, so it is still subject to a turnover (for example if the thrower drops it).If the defense does not indicate to the thrower where the travel occurred, or the thrower wishes to contest the location of an indicated spot, the thrower should announce 'violation', stopping play, and explain that the spot was incorrectly/not indicated.

18.2.6.1.
1
.
18.2.6.1.

The thrower establishes a pivot point at the correct location, as indicated by the player who called the travel. This must occur without delay from either player involved.

18.2.6.2.
2
.
18.2.6.2.

Any stall count is paused, and the thrower may not throw the disc, until a pivot point is established at the correct location.

18.2.6.3.
3
.
18.2.6.3.

The marker does not need to say “Stalling” before resuming the stall count.

18.2.7.
7
.
18.2.7.

If, after a travel infraction but before correcting the pivot point, the thrower throws a completed pass, the defensive team may call a travel violation. Play stops and the disc is returned to the thrower. The thrower must return to the location occupied at the time of the infraction. Play must restart with a check.

After a travel violation the thrower must return to the location occupied at the time of the infraction, not to the spot they should have been at.After a turnover out-of-bounds, if the thrower is called for a travel because they established the pivot on the side line, instead of on the goal line, and they have thrown a completed pass, play must stop. The disc must be returned to the thrower and the disc must be checked in where the infraction occurred, ie on the side line. Once the disc is checked in, they must move to the goal line to establish a pivot at the correct spot. All other players may move once the disc is checked in. The disc is considered to be dead until the pivot is established.

18.2.8.
8
.
18.2.8.

If, after a travel infraction, the thrower throws an incomplete pass, play continues.

18.2.9.
9
.
18.2.9.

After a contested travel infraction where the thrower has not released the disc, play stops.

18.3.
3
.
18.3.

“Pick” Violations:

18.3.1.
1
.
18.3.1.

If a defensive player is guarding one offensive player and they are prevented from moving towards/with that player by another player, that defensive player may call “Pick”. However it is not a pick if both the player being guarded and the obstructing player are making a play on the disc.

Note:A pick should only be called if the obstructed player is within 3 metres of the player they were guarding at the time they were obstructed. However they do not need to be less than 3 metres away at the time of the call because the obstruction may cause this distance to quickly grow before the call can be made. Obstruction may result from contact with, or the need to avoid, the obstructing player. A pick cannot be called by the offense.After a pick the stall count should resume at maximum 6.A pick should not be called by a defender who was obstructed while attempting to make a play on the disc, that is not related to their ability to move towards/with the player they are guarding (ie they are poaching), however a defender may call a violation under Rule 12.7 if applicable.After an accepted pick call the picked defender catches up the relative position lost because of the pick. If they were trailing by 2.5 metres, then they get to catch back up to 2.5 metres away, but they do not get to set up right next to the offensive player.Extra:If the offence retains possession after an accepted pick, the picked defender may go to the agreed place where they would have been without the obstruction. All other players, including the offensive player that the defender was guarding, should be located according to Rule 10.2.If the offence retains possession after a contested pick, all players, including the player who made the pick call, should be located according to Rule 10.2.

18.3.1.1.
1
.
18.3.1.1.

Prior to making the "Pick" call, the defender may delay the call up to two (2) seconds to determine if the obstruction will affect the play.

If the defender does delay the pick call according to 18.3.1.1, the pick is still deemed to have been called when it was actually called, and not when it occurred. If the defender waits longer then two seconds, 15.9 applies.

18.3.2.
2
.
18.3.2.

If play has stopped, the obstructed player may move to the agreed position they would have otherwise occupied if the obstruction had not occurred, unless specified otherwise.

18.3.3.
3
.
18.3.3.

All players should take reasonable efforts to avoid the occurrence of picks.

18.3.3.1.
1
.
18.3.3.1.

During any stoppage opposing players may agree to slightly adjust their locations to avoid potential picks.

19. Safety Stoppages
.
19. Safety Stoppages
19.1.
1
.
19.1.

Injury Stoppage

19.1.1.
1
.
19.1.1.

An injury stoppage, “Injury”, may be called by the injured player, or by any player on the injured player’s team.

19.1.2.
2
.
19.1.2.

If the injury was not caused by an opponent, the player must choose either to be substituted, or to charge their own team with a time-out.

The injured player must choose one of the two options provided; however if their team has no time-outs remaining, they must be substituted.To ‘charge their own team with a time-out’ means that a time-out is deducted from those allowed for that half, however the team does not get the opportunity to discuss tactics or have a break as per a standard 75 second time-out.If there is a dispute over who caused the injury, then the 19.1.3 is deemed to apply.If Player A is substituted for an injury, and then an additional injury substitution is required during the same point, Player A can return to play.If an injury time-out is called during a team time-out, the opposing team must be notified as soon as the injury is discovered.

19.1.3.
3
.
19.1.3.

If the injury was caused by an opponent the player may choose to stay or to be substituted.

19.1.4.
4
.
19.1.4.

If the injured player had established possession of the disc, and the player has dropped the disc due to the injury, that player retains possession of the disc.

19.1.5.
5
.
19.1.5.

The injury stoppage is considered to have been called at the time of the injury, unless the injured player chooses to continue play before the stoppage is called.

19.1.6.
6
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19.1.6.

If the disc was in the air when the injury stoppage was called, play continues until either a player establishes possesion, or the disc hits the ground. If the injury is not the result of a foul by an opponent, the completion or turnover stands, and play restarts there after the stoppage.

If an injury is called while the disc is in the air, as a result of a serious injury, and players stop to care for the severely injured player, it is reasonable to treat this as a technical stoppage and allow the disc to be returned to the thrower.

19.2.
2
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19.2.

Technical Stoppage

19.2.1.
1
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19.2.1.

Any player who recognises a condition that endangers players, including if a player has an open or bleeding wound, should call a technical stoppage by calling “technical” or “stop”. Play must stop immediately.

A player can call a Technical Stoppage to remove or adjust a potentially dangerous object (i.e. rock, metal, wood piece, glass) found in the playing field. A receiver is not required to continue playing through a dangerous situation, such as a child wandering onto the field. In that case, the receiver should stop making a play on the disc in order to prioritize the safety of themselves and others, and the disc will be returned to the thrower once the dangerous situation is rectified.

19.2.1.1.
1
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19.2.1.1.

A team-mate, coach, or designated official, should actively alert players to any condition that endangers players.

19.2.1.2.
2
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19.2.1.2.

A player who has an issue regarding an open or bleeding wound has seventy (70) seconds to effectively address the issue. If they need additional time to address the issue, they must choose either to be substituted, or to charge their own team with a time-out.

A bleeding or exposed open wound is 'effectively addressed' if it is covered with a dressing sturdy enough to withstand the demands of activity and able to prevent bodily fluids from coming in contact with other players. Any player whose clothing has blood on it must have the affected areas disinfected or must change the clothing before returning to play. Whether a player may return to play is determined by appropriate medical staff. If medical staff is not available, captains and coaches may agree that a wound has been effectively covered and any clothing issues have been addressed.The stoppage should only be used to address the blood issue.

19.2.2.
2
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19.2.2.

The thrower may call a technical stoppage during play to replace a severely damaged disc.

A severely damaged disc is one that is cracked, torn, deeply gouged, creased, punctured or badly warped (“tacoed”); a slightly warped, wet or dirty disc does not qualify. However an existing stoppage may be extended to correct a warped disc (rule 10.3).

19.2.3.
3
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19.2.3.

After a technical stoppage called while the disc is in the air, or if play has continued unknowingly:

19.2.3.1.
1
.
19.2.3.1.

If the call or issue did not affect play, the completion or turnover stands, and play restarts there;

19.2.3.2.
2
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19.2.3.2.

If the call or issue did affect the play, the disc goes back to the thrower.

19.3.
3
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19.3.

If a player is substituted after an injury, or due to illegal or faulty equipment, the opposing team may also choose to substitute one player.

19.3.1.
1
.
19.3.1.

Substitute players take on the full state (location, possession, stall count etc) of the player they are substituting and may make a call on their behalf.

20. Time-Outs
.
20. Time-Outs
20.1.
1
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20.1.

The player calling a time-out must form a "T" with their hands, or with one hand and the disc, and should call "time-out" to opposition players.

20.2.
2
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20.2.

After the start of a point and before both teams have signalled readiness, a player from either team may call a time-out. The time-out extends the time between the start of the point and subsequent pull by seventy-five (75) seconds.

20.3.
3
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20.3.

After the pull only a thrower with possession of the disc may call a time-out. The time-out starts when the “T” is formed, and lasts seventy-five (75) seconds. After such a time-out:

The delay of game rules from section 10.5 also apply to the restart of play after a time-out.For games played using the Appendix, refer to the relevant section for specific timings that applyIf the thrower must/can move to establish a pivot at a different spot to where they established possession, they can call a time-out before they establish the pivot at that spot. This means that if the thrower picks up the disc after a turnover, and the turnover location is not in the central zone, they can call a timeout straight away. If they do so, they must place the disc at the spot where they will establish a pivot after the time-out.

20.3.1.
1
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20.3.1.

Substitutions are not allowed, except for injury.

20.3.2.
2
.
20.3.2.

Play is restarted at the pivot location.

20.3.3.
3
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20.3.3.

The thrower must remain the same.

20.3.4.
4
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20.3.4.

All other offensive players must establish a stationary position, at any location.

20.3.5.
5
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20.3.5.

Once the offensive players have selected positions, defensive players must then establish a stationary position, at any location

20.3.6.
6
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20.3.6.

The stall count restarts at maximum nine (9). However if the marker has been switched, the stall count restarts at “Stalling one (1)”.

20.4.
4
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20.4.

If the thrower attempts to call a time-out while play i live and when their team has no remaining time-outs, play is stopped. The marker must add two (2) seconds to the stall count they would have restarted play on before restarting play with a check. If this results in a stall count of ten (10) or above, this is a "stall-out" turnover.

If a team calls 'time-out” between points, or during a stoppage, but their team has none remaining, then the time-out call has no affect.

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Summary