Rules Analysis
World Flying Disc Federation 2017 Rules of Ultimate
18. Infractions and Violations

“Travel” Infractions:


The thrower may attempt a pass at any time as long as they are entirely in-bounds or have established an in-bounds pivot.


After catching the disc, and landing in-bounds, the thrower must reduce speed as quickly as possible, without changing direction, until they have established a pivot point.


The thrower may change direction (“pivot”) only by establishing a “pivot point”, where one part of their body remains in constant contact with a certain spot on the playing field, called the “pivot point”.


A thrower who is lying down or kneeling does not need to establish a pivot.

A thrower lying on the ground will have several points that could be their pivot, but they do not have to declare which point is their pivot, unless they choose to. If they subsequently decide to stand up, they can choose which point was their pivot, and establish their foot as their pivot at that point.


A travel infraction occurs if:

The defence should not call travel under section 18.2 unless they have evidence that the player was not trying to stop while in possession of the disc. In particular:

-    a player who catches and throws the disc while entirely in the air does not need to slow down

-    the length of a player's strides should decrease as they slow down

-    a player is not allowed to maintain a constant speed while catching and throwing the disc, unless they catch and throw in the air

-    it should never take a player more than 5 steps to come to a stop

Unless the defence has evidence along those lines, they should not call travel.

Players should also take into consideration that a player may change direction after they have established a pivot – any change of direction after a pivot has been established should not be called a travel.

In some situations, a receiver may need to maintain speed briefly or change direction slightly to avoid contact with a diving defender or to jump over a player on the ground.  This is expected in such situations and should not be considered a travel.

If the travel is caused solely by contact that is initiated by an opponent, this should not be considered a travel.

If play has stopped, the thrower may change the part of their body that they have in contact with the pivot spot. This is not a travel.


After an uncontested travel infraction is called ("travel"), play does not stop.


An uncontested Travel infraction is called and the thrower has not released the disc.


Play does not stop. The thrower must establish the pivot at the correct spot as per rule 18.2.6.


If uncontested, all players, except the thrower, are free to move anywhere on the field.

If contested, play stops and players should return to where they were when the travel was called.

If the thrower fails to establish the pivot at the correct spot before throwing the disc, this is violation as per rule 18.2.7. If the pass is incomplete, play continues. If the pass is completed, play stops and the disc is returned to the thrower.


If, after a travel infraction but before correcting the pivot, the thrower throws a completed pass, the defensive team may call a travel violation. Play stops and the disc is returned to the thrower. The thrower must return to the location occupied at the time of the infraction. Play must restart with a check.

After a travel violation the thrower must return to the location occupied at the time of the infraction, not to the spot they should have been at.

After a turnover out-of-bounds, if the thrower is called for a travel because they established the pivot on the side line, instead of on the goal line, and they have thrown a completed pass, play must stop. The disc must be returned to the thrower and the disc must be checked in where the infraction occurred, ie on the side line. Once the disc is checked in, they must move to the goal line to establish a pivot at the correct spot. All other players may move once the disc is checked in. The disc is considered to be dead until the pivot is established.


If, after a travel infraction, the thrower throws an incomplete pass, play continues.


After a contested travel infraction where the thrower has not released the disc, play stops.